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  • A Review Article On Nephrolithiasis Kidney Stones
  • M. S. College of Pharmacy, Gaurapur- kudus Rd ,Devghar, Maharashtra 421312.


Kidney stones are a major problem both in India and developing countries. Kidney stones commonly affect his 10-12% of the industrial population. Most people develop kidney stones later in life. Kidney stones are most common in both men and women. Obesity is one of the main risk factors for stone development. The most common causes of kidney stones include calcium oxalate crystals, high levels of uric acid, and low levels of citrate in the body. Small reductions in urinary oxalate levels have been found to be associated with significant reductions in calcium oxalate stone formation. Therefore, it is recommended to avoid foods rich in oxalates such as cucumbers, bell peppers, beets, spinach, soybeans, chocolate, rhubarb, popcorn, and sweet potatoes. Kidney stones primarily affect body parts such as the kidneys, ureters, and urethra. More importantly, kidney stones are a recurrent disease and, because they contain up to 50?lcium oxalate crystals, there is a lifetime risk of recurrence. Calcium oxalate kidney stones are the most commonly reported stones in India. Therefore, there is a high risk of developing heart disease due to kidney stone disease, which is currently being detected in India and other countries. When kidney stones form, the mineral content in the body decreases, reducing the elements necessary for bone formation. If a patient is found to have high levels of lipids in their blood, they may be more prone to forming kidney stones compared to normal people. Patients are encouraged to eat a low-fat diet and get fibre from natural plants and herbal medicines. Combining herbal medicine with allopathic treatment is a great idea to eliminate all complications related to kidney stones.


kidney calculi, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, cystinuria, laser, artificial intelligence


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Tanmaya Patil
Corresponding author

Chinchghar, Post-kudus, Tal-Wada, District-Palghar, Pin-421312

Tanmaya Patil, Abrarul Haque, Manasi Patil, Riya Patil, A Review Article On Nephrolithiasis (Kidney Stones), Int. J. in Pharm. Sci., 2023, Vol 1, Issue 11, 45-55.

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