Archive

  • A Review On Herbal Mosquito Repellent
  • 1Student, Shri vile Parle Kelavani Mandal’s Institute of Pharmacy, Dhule, Maharashtra, India  
     2Student, Mitcon Institute of Management, Pune, Maharashtra, India
     3Student, IIM & Human Resource Development, Pune Maharashtra, India
     4Student, School of Commerce & Management Studies Sandip University, Nashik Maharashtra, India
     

Abstract

Nowadays Majority of the disease or infection like malaria, dengue etc. caused by the different types of mosquitoes mainly female Anopheles mosquito to prevent these infection or diseases there are multiple synthetic pesticides are used in market. The various pesticides used as a mosquito repellent containing hazardous chemicals that causes the various health problems in humans and other living creatures, that pesticides also cause the environmental pollution by considering these facts we are here with mosquito repellent without hazardous chemicals known as HERBAL MOSQUITO REPELLENT. As the herb are easily accessible in our society, it is very beneficial to use these Holly herbs in mosquito repellent formulations The herbs are the core substance in our formulations ,there are different active constituents such as alkaloids ,fixed oils, essential oil, resins flavonoids ,phenols etc. . Which is present in specific parts of herbs as it is extracted by various methods like steam distillation, pressing techniques, solvent evaporation etc. The current paper summarizes research with aimed of developing the safe and effective herbal mosquito repellents. Our study aims at the investigating the herbs which has mosquito repellent activity but they do not cause the health hazard, environmental hazard and pollution, those herbs which have Mosquito repellent activity which are used in specific proportion depending on their mosquito repellent activity in herbal mosquito repellent formulation and formulations have been developed.

Keywords

Mosquito, essential oils, herbal , Herbs , DEET, Odor

Reference

  1. https://www.shutterstock.com/search/blood-sucke
  2. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/outdoor/mosquito-borne/default.html
  3. https://dste.py.gov.in/sites/default/files/mosquito_project_Final.pdf
  4. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact sheets/detail/malaria
  5. https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/68538
  6. https://time.com/5347546/is-deet safe/?amp=true
  7. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/fs_PC- 070705_01-May-05.pdf
  8. https://nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/3422.pdf
  9. Estrogenic and Antiprogestagenic Activities of Pyrethroid Insecticides. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, October 1998, vol.251, no.3, p.855-859.
  10. Journal of Pesticide Reform, Winter 1992, vol.12, no.9, p.29 (9).
  11. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/fs_PC- 113509_01-Jan-00.pdf
  12. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/fs_PC- 011550_01-Apr-00.pdf
  13. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/fs_PC- 109709_01-Sep-06.pdf
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4947579/
  15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2984095/
  16. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12455272/
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2984095/
  18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC/article/PMC3695574
  19. https://www.britannica.com/plant/neem-tree
  20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791507/
  21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791507/
  22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3819475/#:~:text=Syzygium aromati cum (S.,Maluku islands in east Indonesia
  23. https://www.nparks.gov.sg/florafaunaweb/flora/3/1/3154
  24. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228357516_Chemical_constituents_of_clove_S yzygium_aromaticum_Fam_Myrtaceae_and_their_antioxidant_activity
  25. https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/56125/eugenol-MRP- NYSIPM.pdf?sequence=1
  26. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/thymus- vulgaris
  27. http://himalayanwildfoodplants.com/2022/04/thymus-linearis-benth-jangali-ajwain- E0?????????????/
  28. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/26502503_Chemical_composition_of_Thymus_vulgaris_L_thyme_essential_oil_from_the_Rio_de_Janeiro_State_Brazil
  29. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20836800/
  30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92752/
  31. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283863862_Chemical_constituents_and_biolog ical_activities_of_turmeric_Curcuma_longa_L_-A_review
  32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396198/
  33. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/citrus- reticulata
  34. http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Pomelo.html
  35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6982870/
  36. https://www.biyanicolleges.org/orange-natural-insect repellent/
  37. https://pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Leptospermum petersonii
  38. http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/data/es1614061.html
  39. https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/reviewed/2022/06/15/does-citronella-repel- mosquitoes/7622736001/
  40. https://www.britannica.com/plant/vetiver
  41. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572508/
  42. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320257286_Evaluation_of_the_Constituents_of_Vetiver_Oil_Against_Anopheles_minimus_Diptera_Culicidae_a_Malaria_Vector_in_T hailand
  43. http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Green Rose.html
  44. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289445439_Chemical_constituents_from_flow ers_of_Rosa_chinensis
  45. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20836800/
  46. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercod e=b559
  47. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1934578X0700200411
  48. https://fashionandtextiles.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40691-017-0125-x
  49. http://pza.sanbi.org/pelargonium-graveolens
  50. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271009228_Composition_of_geranium_Pelarg onium_graveolens_essential_oil_from_Tajikistan
  51. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20836800/ 52.https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/reviewed/2022/06/15/does-citronella-repel- mosquitoes/7622736001
  52. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4345801/#:~:text=Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau,of bitter orange and lemon
  53. https://sedonaaromatics.com/the-difference-between-bergamot-and-bee-balm
  54. Cosimi S, Rossi E, Cioni PL, Canale A. Bioactivity and qualitative analysisOf some essential oils from Mediterranean plants against Stored-prodUct pests: evaluation of repellency against Sitophilus zeamais Mot-Schulsky, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) and Tenebrio molitor (L.)J Stored Prod Res 2009; 45: 125–132
  55. https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=2 75990
  56. https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=2 75990
  57. https://www.britannica.com/plant/fennel
  58. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camphora_officinaru
  59. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camphor
  60. Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Zhiri A, Idaomar M. Cytotoxicity and Gene induction by some essential oils in the yeast Saccharomyces cere-Visiae. Mutat Res 2005; 585: 1–13
  61. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lavandula
  62. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/lavandula
  63. Salehi FARP, Heydari R, Ebrahimi SN, Haddad PR. Hydrodistillation-Headspace solvent microextraction, a new method for analysis of the Essential oil components of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. J Chromatogr A 2005; 1098: 14–18
  64. Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, Polissiou MG. GC?MS analysis of essential oilsFrom some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium Digitatum. J Agric Food Chem 2000; 48: 2576–2581
  65. Batish DR, Singh HP, Kohli RK, Kaur S. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natu-Ral pesticide. For Ecol Manage 2008; 256: 2166–2174
  66. El-Zalabani SM, Koheil MM, Meselhy KM, El-Gizawy HA, Sleem AA. Effectof seasonal variation on composition and bioactivities of the essentialoil of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. grown in Egypt. Egyptian J Biomed Sci 2007; 24: 260–276
  67. Inouye S, Uchida K, Abe S. Volatile composition and vapour activity Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes of 36 aromatic herbs cultivated In Chichibu district in Japan. Intl J Aromather 2006; 16: 159–168
  68. Gilani AH, Shaha AJ, Zubair A, Khalid S, Kiani J, Ahmed A, Rasheed M, Ah-Mad VU. Chemical composition and mechanisms underlying the spas-Molytic and bronchodilatory properties of the essential oil of Nepeta Cataria L. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 121: 405–411
  69. Heuskin S, Godin B, Leroy P, Capella Q, Wathelet J-P, Verheggen F, Hau-Bruge E, Lognay G. Fast gas chromatography characterisation of puri-Fied semiochemicals from essential oils of Matricaria chamomilla L.(Asteraceae) and Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae). J Chromatogr A 2009;1216: 2768–2775
  70. Inouye S, Uchida K, Abe S. Volatile composition and vapour activity Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes of 36 aromatic herbs cultivated In Chichibu district in Japan. Intl J Aromather 2006; 16: 159–168
  71. Chalchat J-C, Özcan MM. Comparative essential oil composition of Flowers, leaves and stems of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) used as herb.Food Chem 2008; 110: 501–503
  72. Nakahara K, Alzoreky NS, Yoshihashi T, Nguyen HTT, Trakoontivakorn G.Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil fromCymbopogon nardus (citronella grass). Jpn Intl Res Center Agric Sci2003; 37: 249–25
  73. Sethi ML, Taneja SC, Dhar KL, Atal CK. Chemical investigations on theEssential oil of Burmese citronella. Indian Perfumer 1979; 23: 167–171
  74. Kimbaris AC, Siatis NG, Daferera DJ, Tarantilis PA, Pappas CS, Polissiou MG. Comparison of distillation and ultrasound-assisted extractionmethods for the isolation of sensitive aroma compounds from garlic(Allium sativum). Ultrason Sonochem 2006; 13: 54– 60
  75. Shaath NA, Flores FB, Ositian M, Aal MA-E. The essential oil of Allium sat-Ivum L., Liliaceae (garlic). In: Charalambous G, editor. Food flavors: gen-Eration, analysis and process influence. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science;1995: 2025–2037
  76. Raina VK, Srivastava SK, Aggarwal KK, Syamasundar KV, Khanuja SPS.Essential oil composition of Cymbopogon martinii from different places in India. Flav Fragr 2003; 18: 312–315
  77. Bailer J, Aichinger T, Hackl G, de Hueber K, Dachler M. Essential oil con-Tent and composition in commercially available dill cultivars in com-Parison to caraway. Indian Crops Prod 2001; 14: 229–239
  78. Callan NW, Johnson DL, Westcott MP, Welty LE. Herb and oil composi-Tion of dill (Anethum graveolens L.): Effects of crop maturity and plantDensity. Indian Crops Prod 2007; 25: 282–287
  79. Yatagai M, Sat T, Takahashi T. Terpenes of leaf oils from Cupressaceae.Biochem Syst Ecol 1985; 13: 377–385
  80. Burfield T. Cedarwood oils – part 2. Aromather Times 2003; 1: 14–16
  81. 8.Nozoe T, Yasue A, Yamane K. On the acidic constituents of the essential Oil of Thujopsis dolabrata. Occurrence of ?-thujaplicin. Proc Jpn Acad 1951; 27: 15–1
  82. Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Zhiri A, Idaomar M. Cytotoxicity andGene induction by some essential oils in the yeast Saccharomyces cere-Visiae. Mutat Res 2005; 585: 1–13
  83. Zhang G, Chen C, Chen Z, Chen R, Lin X. Analysis of principle component And chemistry type of essential oil from Cinnamomum camphora leaf In Fujian province. Zhiwu Ziyuan Yu Huanjing Xuebao 2008; 17: 24–27
  84. Nguyen XD, Trinh DC, Nguyen BT, Pham VK, Leclerco PA. Constituents of The leaf oil of Cinnamomum camphora Nees et Eberm from Hue. Tap Chi Hoa Hoc 1994; 32: 64–66
  85. Lawrence BM. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer Flavorist 2009; 34:54–55
  86. Ribeiro APB, Grimaldi R, Gioielli LA, Gonçalves LAG. Zero trans fats from soybean oil   and fully hydrogenated soybean oil: physico-chemical properties and food applications. Food Res Int 2009; 42: 401–41
  87. Wang R, Wang R, Yang B. Extraction of essential oils from five cinnamon Leaves and identification of their volatile compound compositions. In-Novative Food Sci Emerg Technol 2009; 10: 289–292
  88. Fichi G, Flamini G, Zaralli LJ, Perrucci S. Efficacy of an essential oil of Cin-Namomum zeylanicum against Psoroptes cuniculi. Phytomedicine 2007; 14: 227–231
  89. Singh G, Maurya S, DeLampasona MP, Catalan CAN. A comparison of Chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and Bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents. Food Chem Toxicol 2007; 45: 1650–1661
  90. Marengo E, Baiocchi C, Gennaro MC, Bertolo PL, Lanteri S, Garrone W.Classification of essential mint oils of different geographic origin by ap-Plying pattern recognition methods to gas chromatographic data. Che-Mometrics Intell Lab Syst 1991; 11: 75–88
  91. Singh G, Kapoor IPS, Singh P, de Heluani CS, de Lampasona MP, CatalanCAN. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on es-Sential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46: 3295–3302
  92. Sakamura F. Changes in volatile constituents of Zingiber officinale rhi-Zomes during storage and cultivation. Phytochemistry 1987; 26:2207–2212
  93. Nabloussi A, Márquez-Lema M, Fernández-Martínez A, Velasco L. Novel Seed oil types of Ethiopian mustard with high levels of polyunsatu-Rated fatty acids. Indian Crops Prod 2008; 27: 359–363
  94. Burfield T. Cedarwood oils. Part 1. Aromather Times 2002; 1: 14–15
  95. Martín C, Moure A, Martín G, Carrillo E, Domínguez H, Parajó JC. Frac-Tional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor And candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production In Cuba. Bioresour Technol 2010; 34: 533–538
  96. Lawrence BM. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer Flavorist 2005; 30:56–67
  97. Sacchetti OG, Maietti S, Muzzoli M, Scaglianti M, Manfredini S, Radice M,Bruni R. Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin As functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods.Food Chem 2005; 91: 621–632
  98. Gillij YG, Gleiser RM, Zygadlo JA. Mosquito repellent activity of essential Oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina. Bioresour Technol 2008;99: 2507–2515
  99. Geneva MP, Stancheva IV, Boychinova MM, Mincheva NH, Yonova PA. Ef-Fects of foliar fertilization and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on Salvia officinalis L. growth, antioxidant capacity, and essential oil com-Position. J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90: 696–702
  100. Cardile V, Russo A, Formisano C, Rigano D, Senatore F, Arnold NA, Piozzi F. Essential oils of Salvia bracteata and Salvia rubifolia from Lebanon:Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effect on Human melanoma cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 126: 265–272
  101. Inouye S, Uchida K, Abe S. Volatile composition and vapour activity Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes of 36 aromatic herbs cultivated In Chichibu district in Japan. Intl J Aromather 2006; 16: 159–168
  102.  Msaada K, Taarit MB, Hosni K, Hammami M, Marzouk B. Regional and Maturational effects on essential oils yields and composition of cori-Ander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits. Sci Hortic 2009; 122: 116–124
  103. Zheljazkova VD, Pickett KM, Caldwell CD, Pincock JA, Roberts JC, Mapple-Beck L. Cultivar and sowingdate effects on seed yield and oil composition Of coriander in Atlantic Canada. Indian Crops Prod 2008; 28: 88–94
  104. Patil JR, Jayaprakasha GK, Murthy KNC, Tichy SE, Chetti MB, Patil BS. Ap-Optosis- mediated proliferation inhibition of human colon cancer cells By volatile principles of Citrus aurantifolia. Food Chem 2009; 114:1351–1358
  105. Kazazi H, Rezaei K, Ghotb-Sharif SJ, Emam-Djomeh Z, Yamini Y. Supercri-Ticial fluid extraction of flavors and fragrances from Hyssopus officina-Lis L. cultivated in Iran. Food Chem 2007; 105: 805–811
  106. Langa E, Cacho J, Palavra AMF, Burillo J, Mainar AM, Urieta JS. The evo-Lution of hyssop oil composition in the supercritical extraction curve.J Supercrit Fluids 2009; 49: 37–44
  107. Chalchat J-C, Adamovic D, Gorunovic MS. Composition of oils of three Cultivated forms of Hyssopus officinalis endemic in Yugoslavia: f. albus Alef., f. cyaneus Alef. And f. ruber Mill. J Essent Oil Res 2001; 13: 419–421
  108. Kowalski R, Wawrzykowski J. Essential oils analysis in dried materials And granulates obtained from Thymus vulgaris L., Salvia officinalis L.,Mentha piperita L. and Chamomilla recutita L. Essential oil analysis in Dried materials and granulates. Flav Fragr 2009; 24: 31–35
  109. Aziz EE, Craker LE. Essential oil constituents of peppermint, penny-Royal, and apple mint grown in a desert agrosystem. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 2009; 15: 361–367
  110. Nitta M, Kobayashi H, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Nagamine T, Yoshida M.Essential oil variation of cultivated and wild perilla analyzed by GC/MS. Biochem Syst Ecol 2006; 34: 25–37
  111. Wang Z, Wang L, Li T, Zhou X, Ding L, Yu Y, Yu A, Zhang H. Rapid analysis Of the essential oils from dried Illicium verum Hook. F. and Zingiber of-Ficinale Rosc. By improved solvent-free microwave extraction with Three types of microwave-absorption medium. Anal Bioanal Chem 2006; 386: 1863–186
  112. Dzamic A, Sokovic M, Ristic MS, Grijic-Jovanovic S, Vukojevic J, Marin PD. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Illicium verum And Eugenia caryophyllata essential oils. Chem Nat Comp 2009; 45:259–261
  113. https://byjus.com/biology/marigold-botanical-name/
  114. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308610783_Essential_oil_composition_of_African_marigold_Tagetes_minuta_L_harvested_at_different_growth_stages_in_foothills_agroclimatic_ conditions_of_North_India
  115. https://mosquitoreviews.com/mosquito-repellents/marigold/
  116. Judzentiene A, Kupcinskiene E. Chemical composition on essential oils From needles of Pinus sylvestris L. grown in northern Lithuania.J Essent Oil Res 2008; 20: 26–29
  117. Ustun O, Sezik E, Kurkcuoglu M, Baser KHC. Study of the essential oilComposition of Pinus sylvestris from Turkey. Chem Nat Comp 2006;42: 26–3
  118. Angioni A, Barra A, Russo MT, Coroneo V, Dessi S, Cabras P. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Juniperus from ripe and unripe ber-ries and leaves and their antimicrobial activity. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51: 3073–3078
  119. Orav A, Stulova I, Kailas T, Müürisepp M. Effect of storage on the essen-Tial oil composition of Piper nigrum L. fruits of different ripening states.J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52: 2582–2586
  120. Kapoor IPS, Singh B, Singh G, De Heluani CS, De Lampasona MP, Catalan CAN. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and Oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum). J Agric Food Chem 2009;57: 5358–5364
  121. Patumi M, d?Andria R, Marsilio V, Fontanazza G, Morelli G, Lanza B.Olive and olive oil quality after intensive monocone olive growing(Olea europaea L., cv. Kalamata) in different irrigation regimes. Food Chem 2002; 77: 27–34
  122. Petropoulos SA, Daferera D, Polissiou MG, Passam HC. Effect of nitrogen-Application rate on the biomass, concentration, and composition of es-Sential oils in the leaves and roots of three types of parsley. J Plant NutrSoil Sci 2009; 172: 210–215
  123. Khodakov GV, Kotikov IV, Pankovetskii VN. Component composition of essential oil from Artemisia abrotanum and A. dracunculus. Chem NatComp 2009; 45: 905–908
  124. Nikiforov A, Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Raverdino V. GC-FTIR and GC?MS in Odour analysis of essential oils. Microchim Acta 2005; 95: 193–198
  125. Sacchetti OG, Maietti S, Muzzoli M, Scaglianti M, Manfredini S, Radice M,Bruni R. Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin As functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods.Food Chem 2005; 91: 621–632
  126. Nivinskiene O, Butkiene R, Mockute D. Changes in the chemical compo-Sition of essential oil of Angelica archangelica L. roots during storage.Chemija (Vilnius) 2003; 14: 52–56
  127. Wu M, Sun X, Dai Y, Guo F, Huang L, Liang Y. Determination of constitu-Ents of essential oil from Angelica sinensis by gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry. J Central South Univ Technol 2005; 12: 430–436
  128. Vági E, Simándi B, Suhajda A, Héthelyi E. Essential oil composition and Antimicrobial activity of Origanum majorana L. extracts obtained withEthyl alcohol and supercritical carbon dioxide. Food Res Int 2005; 38:51–57
  129. Vera RR, Chane-Ming J. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) from Reunion Island. Food Chem1999; 66: 143–145
  130. Brophy JJ, Davies NW, Southwell IA, Stiff IA, Williams LR. Gas chromato-Graphic quality control for oil of melaleuca terpinen-4-ol type (Austra-Lian tea tree). J Agric Food Chem 1989; 37: 1330–1335
  131. Seo S-M, Kim J, Lee S-G, Shin C-H, Shin S-C, Park I-K. Fumigant antiter-Mitic activity of plant essential oils and components from ajowan (Tra-Chyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica), caraway (Carum carvi),Dill (Anethum graveolens), geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), and lit-Sea (Litsea cubeba) oils against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes spera-Tus Kolbe). J Agric Food Chem 2009; 57: 6596–6602
  132. Lalko J, Api AM. Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay. Food Chem Toxicol 2006; 44: 739–746
  133. Lawrence BM. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer Flavorist 2006; 31:54–57
  134. Nikiforov A, Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Raverdino V. GC-FTIR and GC?MS in Odour analysis of essential oils. Microchim Acta 2005; 95: 193–198
  135. Jones CG, Plummer JA, Barbour EL. Non-destructive sampling of Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) for oil content and composition.J Essent Oil Res 2007; 19: 157–164
  136. Kiran U, Patra DD. Influence of natural essential oils and their by-Products as nitrification retarders in regulating nitrogen utilization For Japanese mint in sandy loam soils of subtropical central India.Agric Ecosyst Environ 2003; 94: 237–245
  137. Batish DR, Singh HP, Kohli RK, Kaur S. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natu-Ral pesticide. For Ecol Manage 2008; 256: 2166–2174
  138. Tapondjou AL, Adler C, Fontem DA, Bouda H, Reichmuth C. Bioactivities Of cymol and essential oils of Cupressus sempervirens and Eucalyptus Saligna against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium confusum Du Val. J Stored Prod Res 2005; 41: 91–102
  139. Sacchetti OG, Maietti S, Muzzoli M, Scaglianti M, Manfredini S, Radice M,Bruni R. Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin As functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods.Food Chem 2005; 91: 621–632
  140. Martín C, Moure A, Martín G, Carrillo E, Domínguez H, Parajó JC. Frac-Tional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor And candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production In Cuba. Bioresour Technol 2010; 34: 533–538
  141. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/06/020611070622.htm
  142. https://www.quora.com/Why-do-mosquitoes-dislike-tomato-plants-What-happens-if-you- keep-a-mosquito-and-a-tomato-plant-together
  143. https://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Tomato.html
  144. https://cms.leoncountyfl.gov/Home/Depart ments/Public-Works/Operations/Mosquito- Control/Mosquito-Science/Anatomy
  145. http://iictenvis.nic.in/Database/Morphology _1194.aspx
  146. https://www.malariavaccine.org/malaria and-vaccines/vaccine-development/life- cycle-malaria-parasite
  147. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology /index.html
  148. https://www.mmv.org/malaria-medicines/lifecycle-malaria-parasite
  149. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK59 51/figure/malaria_LifeCycle/
  150. https://www.houstonmethodist.org/blog/articles/2022/jun/why-are-mosquitoes-attracted-to- some-people-more-than-others
  151. https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/question-corner-mosquitoes- alcohol/article5707143.ece/amp/
  152. https://www.terminix.com/mosquitoes/facts/are-mosquitoes-attracted-to-color/
  153. https://intermountainhealthcare.org/blogs/topics/live-well/2018/08/what-attracts-mosquitoes- to-certain-people/
  154. https://amp.theguardian.com/science/2003/may/01/research.science1
  155. https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1677601
  156. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue
  157. https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/68538
  158. https://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/mosquito/documents/citizensHea lthEffectsMosqP.pdf
  159. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC167123/
  160. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400533/
  161. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228442109_Plant_extracts_as_potential_mosquito_larvicides
  162. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3401688/
  163. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225037273_Mosquito_Repellent_Activity_and_Ph ytochemical_Characterization_of_Essential_Oils_From_Striga_hermonthica_Hyptis_spicigera_a nd_Ocimum_basilicum_Leaf_Extracts
  164. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5905184/
  165. https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-steam-distillation-605690
  166. https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-steam-distillation-605690
  167. https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-steam-distillation-605690
  168. https://www.newdirectionsaromatics.com/blog/articles/how-essential-oils-are-made.amp
  169. R.P.W. Scott, in Encyclopedia of Analytical Science (Second Edition), 2005.
  170. P. Pushpangadan, V. George, in Handbook of Herbs and Spices (Second Edition), Volume 1, 2012
  171. Sayed A. El- Toumy, Ahmed A. Hussein, in Cold Pressed Oils, 2020
  172. https://www.cdc.gov/mosquitoes/about/what-is-a-mosquito.html
  173. http://www.actforlibraries.org/mosquito-anatomy-inside-and-out/
  174. https://www.cdc.gov/mosquitoes/about/what-is-a-mosquito.html
  175. https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/facts/mosquito
  176. https://www.cdc.gov/mosquitoes/about/what-is-a-mosquito.html
  177. https://www.cdc.gov/mosquitoes/about/what-is-a-mosquito.html
  178. https://cms.leoncountyfl.gov/Home/Departments/Public-Works/Operations/Mosquito- Control/Mosquito-Science/Anatomy
  179. https://www.dynatrap.com/articles/mosquito-anatomy-the-perfect-killer

Photo
Jayesh R. Patil
Corresponding author

Student, Shri vile Parle Kelavani Mandal’s Institute of Pharmacy, Dhule, Maharashtra, India

Photo
Shreya M. Nalawade
Co-author

Student, Mitcon Institute of Management, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Photo
Raj Y. Pandya
Co-author

Student, School of Commerce & Management Studies Sandip University, Nashik Maharashtra, India

Photo
Harshada S. Patil
Co-author

Student, IIM & Human Resource Development, Pune Maharashtra, India

Jayesh R. Patil, Shreya M. Nalawade, Harshada S. Patil, Raj Y. Pandya, A Review On Herbal Mosquito Repellent, Int. J. of Pharm. Sci., 2024, Vol 2, Issue 2, 410-437. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10675415

More related articles
A Review On Anti-Diabetic Effect Of Neem (Azadirac...
Yogita Dhuri , Vishal Biswas, Shamili Singh, Shruti Rathore, Divy...
Applications Of Gold Nanoparticles In Treating Dia...
Sachin J. Kamble, Valmiki B. Koli, ...
The pharmacognostic study, phytochemical screening...
Namrata M. Waghmare , Manisha G. Pate, Jayshree S. Dalal, Prasad ...
Orodispersible Tablet: A Review ...
Ritesh Aher, Mayuri Bagul, Niraj Gaikwad, Yogesh Sharma, Dr. Deepak Sonawane, Dr. Dhanajay Patil, ...
Herbal Cosmetic: An Best Approach For Treating Skin Disorders...
Dhanashri B. Lakhe, Smita Aher, R. S. Bachhav, ...
An Overview Of Muscular Dystrophy...
Yenkathala Shivani, Grishma Krishnan, Ishu, Aashutosh Sinwal, Aman Saini, Pooja Brahambhatt, ...
Related Articles
Quality Control And Quality Assurance In Pharmaceuticals...
Sayali Dilip Patil, Mayuri Kaduba Raut, Nikhil Prakash Rathod, ...
Study Of Diabetic Complication Of Urinary Tract Infection: A Review...
Aditi S. Sarda, Pratiksha R. Gawande , Nilima M. Bhoskar, Pravin K. Bhoyar, Somesh M. Bawane, ...
Formulation And Evaluation Of Antiperspirant/Hyperhidrosis Solution...
Ang Solanki, Nripen Prakash Khare , Khushbu Pinjane, Satyaendra Shrivastava , ...
New Therapeutic approaches for Migraine: A brief overview...
Dipali V. Mane, Rashmi R. Balkate , Vanita H. Shinde, ...
A Review On Anti-Diabetic Effect Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves...
Yogita Dhuri , Vishal Biswas, Shamili Singh, Shruti Rathore, Divyani Soni, ...
More related articles
A Review On Anti-Diabetic Effect Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves...
Yogita Dhuri , Vishal Biswas, Shamili Singh, Shruti Rathore, Divyani Soni, ...
The pharmacognostic study, phytochemical screening, and TLC of Allamanda Cathart...
Namrata M. Waghmare , Manisha G. Pate, Jayshree S. Dalal, Prasad P. Jumde , ...
A Review On Anti-Diabetic Effect Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves...
Yogita Dhuri , Vishal Biswas, Shamili Singh, Shruti Rathore, Divyani Soni, ...
The pharmacognostic study, phytochemical screening, and TLC of Allamanda Cathart...
Namrata M. Waghmare , Manisha G. Pate, Jayshree S. Dalal, Prasad P. Jumde , ...