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Abstract

It has been discovered that plants are rich in both food and medicine. Humans have been looking for novel plant secondary metabolites, or phytochemicals. The leftover plant material is thrown away after the flowers have been harvested. It is well known that Tagetes erecta has insecticidal properties. The leaf, stem, and flower were the three parts used to test the insecticidal property. In order to evaluate the mosquito repellent activity, the powdered material was burned after being used to make fast cards. Comparing the leaf powder (25%) with a commercial product has yielded encouraging results. It was discovered to have no negative effects. Comparing the production cost to a commercial product, it is significantly lower (75%).

Keywords

Tagetes erecta , Fast card,mosquito repellant

Introduction

Numerous mosquito species are thought to be the source of diseases like malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and epidemic polyarthritis.[1,4]The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that these illnesses result in more than 3 million fatalities each year.[2] Malaria and other diseases spread by mosquitoes have numerous treatments available, but it is always preferable to avoid the illness. Thus, the phrase "mosquito and other repellent" was created. Applying repellent topically or in other ways keeps mosquitoes from biting. Both natural and synthetic repellents can be made. Natural coils for mosquitoes: Unfortunately, the majority of man-made chemical repellents, particularly DEET, are easily absorbed through the skin and can result in numerous unintentional poisonings, particularly in young children. They have the ability to poison wildlife as well.DEET-N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide is extremely harmful to the environment, and DDT-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane is thought to be a teratogen, mutagen, or carcinogen. Thus, the need arises for an additional method of insect repelling that is preferably non-toxic. Insect and mosquito repellents are known to be found in many natural substances[3]. The majority of tropical and subtropical diseases that have catastrophic effects on humans are spread by mosquitoes[5]. Malaria, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis, Japanese encephalitis (JE), and the worst, dengue hemorrhagic fever, which is brought on by Aedes aegypti, are the most frequent and terrifying illnesses linked to mosquitoes[6–7]. The pantropical pest and urban vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, Culex quinquefasciatus, is the carrier of filariasis[8]. Because Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of dengue and filarial fever, respectively, which are major public health issues in nations like India, attention has been drawn to controlling these insects. Consequently, research is being done to find novel plant entities that can stop the spread of diseases carried by mosquitoes and safeguard control of mosquitoes in the environment from the use of chemical pesticides. Numerous plants exhibit antirepellent properties, which are necessary for disease prevention. Because they are plant-based, they are generally safe and do not have any negative effects. Essential oils from one or more of the following plants are present in a large number of plant-based mosquito repellents currently available on the market: citronella, cedar, eucalyptus, geranium, lemon-grass, peppermint, neem, soybean, and marigold [9]. They are a powerful source of repellent action as a result. They provide mosquito protection in this way, all without causing any negative side effects. Natural mosquito coils a  practical and effective, but synthetic coils can be hazardous due to their adverse effects.



       
            Picture1.jpg
       

    Fig no.1 Tagetes erecta.


Taxonomical classification [10]

Kingdom :Plantae

Order: Asterales

Family: Asteraceae

Genus :Tagetes

Species :Tagetes erecta

Chemical composition

 Parts of the marigold plant (Tagetes erecta) will be used by the researchers to make a mosquito-repellint fast card. It repels mosquitoes without harming the environment and doesn't contain any harmful chemicals like some commercial products. It has a distinct scent that attracts a lot of insects. "A-terthienyl" is the chemical responsible for the odour. which gives marigold a built-in insecticidal quality. All of the ingredients contain additional harmful substances that are bad for human health, such as cyanogenic glycosides, papain, alkaloids, and terpenes. Moreover, it has pyrethrin, a naturally occurring substance that kills mosquitoes. Marigold is said to repel nematodes and a few common insect pests. For this reason, marigolds are frequently planted alongside potatoes, tomatoes, and chiles. Marigolds should not be planted close to any legume crops because of the antibacterial thiophenes that are released by the roots. Aphids, white flies, maggots, and numerous other pests are repelled by thiophenes.  It is thought that the volatiles extracted from the erecta species' flower through simultaneous steam distillation extractions (SSDE) have stronger insecticidal activity. Pyrethrim, an ingredient in many insect repellents, is present in flowers.

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF MOSQUITOREPELLENTS

For female mosquitoes, carbon dioxide, excretory products, and lactic acid found in perspiration from warm-blooded animals are attractive substances. The Chemoreceptors in mosquito antennae are responsible for the detection of odours. The repellents prevent upwind flight by blocking lactic acid receptors, which causes the mosquitoes to lose contact with their host [14,15].

Typically, insect repellents function by disguising the smell of humans or by employing a scent that insects instinctively avoid. The difference with permethrin is that it's a contact drug.

Methodology

  1. From Ayurvedic Samhitas, herbal remedies with Vishaghna and Krumighna qualities were chosen.
  2. The R.S.M. department at Dravyaguna conducted the authentication of the aforementioned herbal medications.
  3. The herbs were gathered and organised.
  4. An insecticidal extract from marigold flowers was made.
  5. All component extracts were combined, and a solution with the consistency of a thin liquid paste was prepared.
  6. The prepared solution is applied to pieces of clothing and various papers with varying textures and thicknesses.

Here are some methods for applying the solution:

  1. Using a paintbrush to apply the mixture
  2. Misting the blend onto handmade paper.
  3. dipping cloth or paper in the mixture
  1. The solution was tested for burning, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness after being applied to the paper and cloth at different times
  2. Lastly, using the solution on 400 GSM handmade paper in the colour creamy white turned out to be very advantageous.
  3. The paper was left to dry overnight.
  4. After applying the prepared solution one, three, five, and seven times, it was burned to test its effectiveness.
  5. When the solution was applied six times to both sides and bhutrun oil was added during the seventh application, the most effective result was produced.
  6. The strip was divided into equal-sized cards that were 5 cm by 7 cm.
  7. A total of thirty locations (with an area of 100–150 square feet) were used to test the mosquito repellent Fast Card.It was a closed area. The windows were shut.

Catnip Repels Mosquitoes More

Effectively Than DEET According to researchers, nepetalactone, the catnip plant's essential oil that gives it its distinctive scent, is roughly ten times more effective at keeping mosquitoes away than DEET, the ingredient in the majority of commercial insect repellents.[16].

Security precautions to be taken when applying insect repellent on children and expectant mothers[17].

  • Because they may be exposed to repellents more frequently, children may be more susceptible       to negative reactions.
  • Keep repellents out of children's reach.
  • Use minimal amounts of repellent on children; do not let them apply repellents to themselves.
  • Repellants should not be applied to young children's hands as this could lead to unintentional eye contact or ingestion.

 When possible, dress kids in long sleeves and long pants tucked into boots or socks to help minimise the need for repellents feasible. Cover strollers, playpens, etc. with netting. Pregnant women should take care to avoid exposure to repellents when at all possible, as the foetus may be vulnerable to chemical exposures in general.

Alternatives to mosquito repellent

  • An alternative is to use incense coils, which you can burn.
  • They release a cloud of smoke containing pesticides.
  • Mosquito coils with an allethrin-containing form; DEET-infused wrist bands; and mosquito repellent vapour.

Evaluation test

  1. Repellency test:

This test is carried out in a cuboidal glass box with an opening that allows mosquitoes to pass through. The six mosquitoes were placed inside the box, which was designed to resemble a room in a house. The coil inside the box was burned. It was noted how long it took the mosquitoes to attempt to flee, find a number, or end their lives.

  1. Test for smoke toxicity:

In a chamber, a smoke toxicity experiment was carried out. After ten adult mosquitoes were released into the chamber, they were subjected to 45 minutes of incense smoke exposure. Every 15 minutes, the mosquito mortality data were recorded. The above-tested commercial citronella incense stick was used to compare the smoke toxicity[11].

  1. Assessing the effectiveness of mosquito repellent

To conduct the test, just the mosquito-prone areas during the evening and night were chosen. The public comments were accepted and then recorded. The prepared incense sticks were examined for any negative effects, such as irritation, coughing, or tears, and records were made in order to investigate the mosquito repellent activity. The amount of ash the stick produced was measured and noted[11].

D. Activity larvicidal:

 a. Making plant extracts:

The powdered leaf was prepared and then soaked in ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, water, and chloroform (plant material to solvent ratio:1:10, w/v). The extract was then left to extract for 24 hours at room temperature, shaking at 150 rpm. After filtering, the extract was dried at 40°C. Re-suspended were the dried extracts in 1 millilitre of acetone.

b. Biological Assay:

 Distilled water was used to prepare various extract concentrations. Every experimental exposure was carried out in a petri dish. Using a Pasteur pipette, twenty-five (25) larvae were collected and put in petri plates with different concentrations of crude extracts.  A control test was conducted using only distilled water. To prevent the entry of any foreign material, muslin cloth was placed over the petri plates. After 24 hours of exposure to the test solution, the observed mortality was noted. Any mortality from this data was examined, and the percentage of mortality was noted[12].

Percentage of mortality= 1????????????????????????????????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????÷???????????????????????????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????× 100%

An old method of extracting volatile oils is water distillation. Because of its simplicity, it is used all over the world, although heating and cooling it requires a lot of energy. A 100 ml volume of distilled water was added to a round-bottom flask containing the 15 g of powered material leaf. Boiling of the mixture was permitted. When the water boiled long enough, steam was produced. The condenser is where the essential oil from the leaf materials is collected instantaneously. After cooling, the essential oil and water were collected.

Pharmacological activity

Mosquitocidal activity

Research has been done on the mosquitocidal effects of Tagetes erecta flower ethanolic extract and its petroleum ether and chloroform soluble fractions on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

Using the WHO standard procedure, the larvicidal effect of ethanol extract and its solvent fractions was assessed against various C. Quinquefasciatus instars [18].

Anti-fungal activity

At a concentration of 2000 ppm, the dampingoff pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum was completely inhibited in its growth by the fungitoxic activity of Tagetes erecta leaves essential oil [19].

Antibacterial activity

Tagetes erecta flower solvents have been tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of various bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, Proteus vulgaris, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacillus cereus. The flavonoid exhibits a maximal zone of inhibition for Klebsiella pneumoniae (29.50 mm) and antibacterial activity against all tested strains.One of the possible components of its antibacterial action is flavonoid-patulitrin [20]. Maximum inhibitory action against Neisseria gonorrhoea strain was demonstrated by the flower parts [21].

Hepatoprotective activity

When compared to the CCl4-intoxicated group, the ethyl acetate fraction of T. erecta, at an oral dose of 400 mg/kg, significantly decreased the elevated serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and bilirubin, bringing them almost to normal. Rats given 400 mg/kg of the extract and CCl4 showed notable improvements in their liver histologically, with the exception of foci of lobular inflammation, mild inflammation, and cytoplasmic vascular degenerations surrounding portal tracts [22].

 Anti-cancer activity

 Marigold has been used traditionally for many therapeutic purposes as a medicinal herb. Researchers looked into the cytotoxic potential of marigold flower extracts in ethanol and ethyl acetate, as well as how they affected the enzymes tyrosinase and elastase. The cytotoxicity of these two extracts was assessed using an assay on the colon cancer cell line CaCO2 and the lung cancer cell line H460[23].

Traditional uses 

 Traditional medicine uses several parts of the Tagetes erecta plant, including the flower, to treat a variety of illnesses. This plant's leaves are used as an antiseptic, for boils and carbuncles, as well as for kidney problems, muscle soreness, and piles. The flower petals are used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat fevers, epileptic fits, stomachic complaints, scabies, liver complaints, astringent, carminative, and eye diseases. They are believed to cleanse the blood, and flower juice is used to treat rheumatism, colds, bronchitis, and bleeding piles [24]. It has been discovered that several Tagetes species have analgesic, wound-healing, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties [25]. The concentration of various secondary metabolites and the most significant compounds in Tagetes erecta are associated with its pharmacological activity[19].

Observations

30 distinct locations' observations were recorded, and sample feedback was obtained, which shows. All thirty of us appreciated the card's size. All thirty of them thought the card's colour was beautiful. The card was easily agitated. Every card ignited in two to three seconds with ease. Card size at burning time was 5 cm by 7 cm. It takes five to six minutes to burn completely. Five to eight percent of the paper doesn't burn. All thirty of them enjoyed the pleasant smell that lingered after burning. All thirty people reported a mosquito-repelling effect. There was no negative impact on symptoms that was noticed. Even after ventilation, or penetrating windows, the effect of repelling mosquitoes lasted for one to two hours.

CONCLUSION

The Fast Card, made with the aforementioned medications, turned out to be an effective, safer, more affordable, and superior mosquito repellent. The prepared fast card mosquito repellent is environmentally friendly. It is relatively safe, fast acting, portable, and has a long-lasting effect.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authers are thankful to the Deparment of Pharmacognosy,Matoshri Institute Of Pharmacy College,Dhanore,maharashtra, India for their kind support and guidance for this review article.

REFERENCES

  1. Narsinh LT, Sandhya PM, Reena AP, Madhavi MI. Mosquita Iarvicidal potential of some extracts obtained from the marine organisms –Prawn and Sea cucumber. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 33(3): 303-306., 2004
  2. Hindustan AA, Kishor KR,Chitta SK, Krishna PU, Ravindra BV, Chandra SK, Anil KG, Vamsi MG.Formulation and Evaluation of Home Made Poly Herbal Liquids Mosquito Repellent. JITPS, 1(2):98-105., 2019
  3. BravermanY, Chizov-Ginzburg A, Mullens, BA. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).Journal of Medical Entomology, 36(1): 113– 115., 1999
  4. Mohini M,Satya NN, Dhananjay KT. Evaluation of antimosquito properties of essential oils. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 64: 129-133., 2005
  5. Service MW. Management of vector. In: Youdeowei A, Service N, editors. Pest and Vector Management in the Tropics. England: Longman Ltd., pp. 7–20.,1983
  6. Das MK, Ansari MA. Evaluation of repellent action of Cymbopogan martinii martinii Stapf var sofia oil against Anopheles sundaicus in tribal villages of Car Nicobar Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. J Vector Borne Dis. 40:100–4.,2003 [PubMed]
  7.  Udonsi JK. The status of human filariasis in relation to clinical signs in endemic areas of the Niger Delta. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 80:425–32.,1986 [PubMed]
  8. Samuel T, Jayakumar M, William SJ. Culex mosquito: An overview. In: William SJ, editor. Defeating the Public Enemy, the Mosquito: A Real Challenge. Chennai: Loyola Publications., pp. 95–116.,2007
  9. Donald R, Bernard, Ruidexue., Laboratory Evaluation of Mosquito Repellents against Aedes albopictus, culex Nigripapus and ochlerotatus triseriatus (Diptera culicidae)Journal of Medical Entomology 41 (4): 727., 2004
  10. Gopi, G., Elumalai, A., & Jayasri, P. A concise review on Tagetes erecta International Journal of Phytopharmacy Research3(1): 16-19.,2012
  11. Anjali Rawani , Anupam Ghosh , Subrata Laskar , Goutam Chandra Aliphatic Amide from Seeds of Carica papaya as Mosquito Larvicide, Pupicide, Adulticide, Repellent and Smoke Toxicant. Journal of Mosquito Research, 2012, Vol.2, No.2, 8-18, 2012
  12. Malik, B. R., Malik, M. K., & Balakrishnan, N. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the different extracts against important species of mosquito: Anopheles stephensi Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 6(1): 11-15.,2014
  13. Charak Samhita Sutrasthan Adhyay 4 Chaukhamba Prakashan pg no.33
  14. Elissa AH, Nicole FA, Laurence J and John R. "Olfaction: Mosquito receptor for human-sweat odorant".Nature. 2004;427(6971): 212–213.
  15. Sah ML, Mishra D, Sah SP and Rana M, Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Mosquito Repellent Preparations, Indian Drugs.2010;47(4); 45-50.
  16. Fradin MS. Mosquitoes and Mosquito Repellents: A Clinician's Guide ,Ann Inter Med1998;128:931-940.
  17. Ansari MA. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent action of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil. Bioresource Technology. 2000;71(3): 267–271
  18. Nikkon F, Habib RH, Saud ZA, Rezaul KM (2011). Tagetes erecta Linn. and its Mosquitocidal potency againstCulex quinquefasciatus. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1, 186-188.
  19. Kishore N, Dwivedi RS (2006). Fungi-toxicity of theessential oil of Tagetes erecta against Pythium aphanidermatum fitz. the damping of the pathogen.Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6, 291-294.
  20. Rhama S, Madhavan S (2011). Antibacterial Activity of the Flavonoid- patulitrin isolated from the flowers of Tagetes erecta L. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology and Research, 3, 1407-1409.
  21. Patrick RS, Marijo C, Sandra R (2011). Antimicrobial Activity of flavonoids from Piper lanceaefolium and other Colombian medicinal plants against antibiotic susceptible and resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 38, 81-88.
  22. Giri K, Bose A, Mishra KS (2011). Hepatoprotective activity of Tagetes erecta against carbon tetrachlorideinduced hepatic damage in rats. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica and Drug Research, 68, 999-1003.
  23. Vallisuta O, Nukoolkarn V, Mitrevej A, Sarisuta N,Pimporn L, Phrutivorapongkul P, Sinchaipanid N(2014). In vitro studies on the cytotoxicity, and elastase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of marigold(Tagetes erecta L.) flower extracts. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 7, 246–250.
  24. Shetty LJ, Harikiran H, Fernandes J (2009).Pharmacological evaluation of ethanolic extract of flowers of Tagetes erecta on epilepsy. Journal ofPharmacy Research, 2, 1035-1038.
  25. Rodda R, Kota A, Sreeja K, Raju CH, Valya N (2011).Antidiabetic potential of Tagetes erecta whole plant instreptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 4, 4032-4034.The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed 1stJanuary).

Reference

  1. Narsinh LT, Sandhya PM, Reena AP, Madhavi MI. Mosquita Iarvicidal potential of some extracts obtained from the marine organisms –Prawn and Sea cucumber. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 33(3): 303-306., 2004
  2. Hindustan AA, Kishor KR,Chitta SK, Krishna PU, Ravindra BV, Chandra SK, Anil KG, Vamsi MG.Formulation and Evaluation of Home Made Poly Herbal Liquids Mosquito Repellent. JITPS, 1(2):98-105., 2019
  3. BravermanY, Chizov-Ginzburg A, Mullens, BA. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).Journal of Medical Entomology, 36(1): 113– 115., 1999
  4. Mohini M,Satya NN, Dhananjay KT. Evaluation of antimosquito properties of essential oils. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 64: 129-133., 2005
  5. Service MW. Management of vector. In: Youdeowei A, Service N, editors. Pest and Vector Management in the Tropics. England: Longman Ltd., pp. 7–20.,1983
  6. Das MK, Ansari MA. Evaluation of repellent action of Cymbopogan martinii martinii Stapf var sofia oil against Anopheles sundaicus in tribal villages of Car Nicobar Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. J Vector Borne Dis. 40:100–4.,2003 [PubMed]
  7.  Udonsi JK. The status of human filariasis in relation to clinical signs in endemic areas of the Niger Delta. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 80:425–32.,1986 [PubMed]
  8. Samuel T, Jayakumar M, William SJ. Culex mosquito: An overview. In: William SJ, editor. Defeating the Public Enemy, the Mosquito: A Real Challenge. Chennai: Loyola Publications., pp. 95–116.,2007
  9. Donald R, Bernard, Ruidexue., Laboratory Evaluation of Mosquito Repellents against Aedes albopictus, culex Nigripapus and ochlerotatus triseriatus (Diptera culicidae)Journal of Medical Entomology 41 (4): 727., 2004
  10. Gopi, G., Elumalai, A., & Jayasri, P. A concise review on Tagetes erecta International Journal of Phytopharmacy Research3(1): 16-19.,2012
  11. Anjali Rawani , Anupam Ghosh , Subrata Laskar , Goutam Chandra Aliphatic Amide from Seeds of Carica papaya as Mosquito Larvicide, Pupicide, Adulticide, Repellent and Smoke Toxicant. Journal of Mosquito Research, 2012, Vol.2, No.2, 8-18, 2012
  12. Malik, B. R., Malik, M. K., & Balakrishnan, N. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the different extracts against important species of mosquito: Anopheles stephensi Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 6(1): 11-15.,2014
  13. Charak Samhita Sutrasthan Adhyay 4 Chaukhamba Prakashan pg no.33
  14. Elissa AH, Nicole FA, Laurence J and John R. "Olfaction: Mosquito receptor for human-sweat odorant".Nature. 2004;427(6971): 212–213.
  15. Sah ML, Mishra D, Sah SP and Rana M, Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Mosquito Repellent Preparations, Indian Drugs.2010;47(4); 45-50.
  16. Fradin MS. Mosquitoes and Mosquito Repellents: A Clinician's Guide ,Ann Inter Med1998;128:931-940.
  17. Ansari MA. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent action of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil. Bioresource Technology. 2000;71(3): 267–271
  18. Nikkon F, Habib RH, Saud ZA, Rezaul KM (2011). Tagetes erecta Linn. and its Mosquitocidal potency againstCulex quinquefasciatus. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1, 186-188.
  19. Kishore N, Dwivedi RS (2006). Fungi-toxicity of theessential oil of Tagetes erecta against Pythium aphanidermatum fitz. the damping of the pathogen.Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6, 291-294.
  20. Rhama S, Madhavan S (2011). Antibacterial Activity of the Flavonoid- patulitrin isolated from the flowers of Tagetes erecta L. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology and Research, 3, 1407-1409.
  21. Patrick RS, Marijo C, Sandra R (2011). Antimicrobial Activity of flavonoids from Piper lanceaefolium and other Colombian medicinal plants against antibiotic susceptible and resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 38, 81-88.
  22. Giri K, Bose A, Mishra KS (2011). Hepatoprotective activity of Tagetes erecta against carbon tetrachlorideinduced hepatic damage in rats. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica and Drug Research, 68, 999-1003.
  23. Vallisuta O, Nukoolkarn V, Mitrevej A, Sarisuta N,Pimporn L, Phrutivorapongkul P, Sinchaipanid N(2014). In vitro studies on the cytotoxicity, and elastase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of marigold(Tagetes erecta L.) flower extracts. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 7, 246–250.
  24. Shetty LJ, Harikiran H, Fernandes J (2009).Pharmacological evaluation of ethanolic extract of flowers of Tagetes erecta on epilepsy. Journal ofPharmacy Research, 2, 1035-1038.
  25. Rodda R, Kota A, Sreeja K, Raju CH, Valya N (2011).Antidiabetic potential of Tagetes erecta whole plant instreptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 4, 4032-4034.The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed 1stJanuary).

Photo
Priyanka D. Gaikwad
Corresponding author

Matoshri Institute of Pharmacy Dhanore Yeola, Nashik Maharashtra.

Photo
Apeksha N. Chavhat
Co-author

Matoshri Institute of Pharmacy Dhanore Yeola, Nashik Maharashtra.

Photo
Pratik P. Wani
Co-author

Matoshri Institute of Pharmacy Dhanore Yeola, Nashik Maharashtra.

Photo
Meghana Rayjade
Co-author

Matoshri Institute of Pharmacy Dhanore Yeola, Nashik Maharashtra.

Meghana Rayjade, Priyanka D. Gaikwad, Apeksha N. Chavhat, Pratik P. Wani, A Review On : Development And Evaluation Of Efficacy Of Herbal Mosquito Repellant Fast Card, Int. J. of Pharm. Sci., 2024, Vol 2, Issue 4, 637-643. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10974390

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