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Abstract

Pain or Algesia is an unpleasant bodily sensation usually evoked by an external or internal noxious stimulus. The amount of pain a patient goes through after a surgery is related to the site of surgery and extent of tissue damage. Less than half of the patients who have undergone surgery report of the adequate postoperative pain relief. Proper Post-operative pain control leads to reduction in length of hospital stay, aids in earlier patient mobilization and increased ability to perform daily living activities. The purpose of this study is to compare ketorolac, paracetamol and tramadol in terms of efficacy, safety and post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing orthopaedic and general surgeries. This is a prospective, randomized, comparative, observational study carried out on 120 patients of age 12-75 years undergoing orthopaedic and general surgeries. The patients were divided into three groups in which group 1 was given 30mg ketorolac intramuscularly, group 2 was given 1g paracetamol intravenously and group 3 was given 100mg tramadol intravenously. Duration of post-operative analgesia, pain score, pain onset time, median time to rescue analgesic, pain free interval, hemodynamic parameters and incidence of adverse effects were recorded and statistically analysed using chi-square test. The study concluded that, Ketorolac when given post-operatively is a more effective analgesic when compared with paracetamol and tramadol as it gives a longer duration of analgesia which decreases the use of rescue analgesic.

Keywords

Post-operative pain, Ketorolac, Paracetamol, Tramadol, Surgeries, Orthopaedic

Reference

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Syed Jaffer
Corresponding author

Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sultan-ul-Uloom College of Pharmacy, JNTUH, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

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Shaista Sumayya
Co-author

Pharm D, Sultan-ul-Uloom College of Pharmacy, JNTUH, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

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Meraj fatima
Co-author

Pharm D, Sultan-ul-Uloom College of Pharmacy, JNTUH, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

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Safa mehboobunnisa siddiqi
Co-author

Pharm D, Sultan-ul-Uloom College of Pharmacy, JNTUH, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

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Ruqshan Nazneen
Co-author

Pharm D, Sultan-ul-Uloom College of Pharmacy, JNTUH, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Syed Jaffer*, Shaista Sumayya, Meraj Fatima, Safa Mehboobunnisa Siddiqi, Ruqshan Nazneen, A Comparative Study of Ketorolac, Paracetamol and Tramadol for Post-Operative Pain Management in General And Orthopedic Surgeries, Int. J. in Pharm. Sci., 2023, Vol 1, Issue 6, 18-26. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8025726

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