View Article

Abstract

An ancient time peoples use various plant, roots, and leaves for treatment various disease. Herbal cough syrup is an Ayurveda medicine which is useful in many chronic health problem such as cough, cold, fever, respiratory infection and disorders among human. As a combination of herbs, it is safe, can be made at home, has a low production cost, and can be easily available in any area. Herbal syrup including natural herbs, like tulsi, clove, fennel, turmeric and adulsa which have various action and effect on reducing acute or chronic cough and cold and act as cough suppressant having expectorant and anti-tussive property. In this research, I conclude about herbal cough syrup that, herbal cough syrups is a safest herbal medicine which is use for treatment of cough and cold.

Keywords

Grinding, Extraction, Anti-microbial activity

Introduction

Herbal medicine is also known as Phyto-medicine or herbalism it is a medicine that use plants or their crude products for the treatment of diseases. It may include also animal fungi or bacteria product.  Since ancient era, herbal or plant-based medicines has been used for the prevention, cure & mitigation of diseases and time to time more and more herbal constituents of these natural sources are get enhanced. Herbal medicine has its origins in ancient cultures. It involves the medicinal use of plants to treat disease and enhance general health and wellbeing. Some herbs have potent (powerful) ingredients and should be taken with the same level of caution as pharmaceutical medications. (1)

In fact, many pharmaceutical medications are based on man-made versions of naturally occurring compounds found in plants. For instance, the heart medicine digitalis was derived from the foxglove plant. Herbal medicine aims to return the body to a state of natural balance so that it can heal itself. Different herbs act on different systems of the body. (1)

Herbal Medicine System Beneficial Over Allopathy System:

Although allopathy has been the most acceptable system of medicine over the years, people are now shifting back to the utilization of herbal medicine. This is due to the setbacks of allopathic medicine like it is very expensive, it has serious and frustrating side effects, its relief from ailments is only symptomatic and fear of toxicity to allopathy drugs. Herbal medicine like Ayurveda and Homeopathy are preferred in the treatment of chronic diseases because of the characteristic features of Ayurveda like it is less costly and more sensible, exactly aligns with the patient's thoughts, more easily accessible, time tested, it's said to be more natural and safer and it is thought to have fewer or no negative effects.

Herbal cough syrup

An herbal syrup is prepared by combining a concentrated decoction with either honey or sugar, and sometimes alcohol. Herbal plants and formulations are used for the many types of diseases like cough syrup and many more other diseases. The content of herbal cough syrup include: -funnel, clove, tulsi, cinnamon, pudina, adulsa.

Types of herbal syrup

  • Flavored syrup
  • Medicated syrup   
  • Artificial syrup

Advantages of cough syrup

  • No side effect
  • Low cost
  • Easily available
  • No harmless
  • Herbs grow in commonplace

Disadvantages of cough syrup

  • Not suitable in emergency and for unconscious patients.
  • Dose precision cannot be achieved unless suspension is packed in unit dosage forms.
  • Same   microbial   contamination   take   place   it   preservation   not   added   in   accurate proportion.
  • Fluctuation in  storage temperature may cause crystallization of sucrose from  saturated syrup.

Types of cough


       
            123.png
       


Material And Method Of Preparation

Following herbal parts are used in the formulation of herbal cough syrup

1.   Fennel

2.   Clove

3.   Adulsa

4.   Turmeric

5.   Tulsi


       
            Herbal Ingredient.png
       

    Figure 1 Herbal Ingredient


Fennel


       
            Fennel.png
       

Figure 2 Fennel


Synonyms: -

Large Fennel, Sweet Fennel, Fennel fruit, Saunf (Hindi); Fructus Foeniculi.

Biological source: -

Fennel is the dried, ripe fruits of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Family: Apiaceae).

Geographical source: -

Fennel is indigenous to Mediterranean region of Asia and Europe. It is widely cultivated in Russia, India, Japan, southern Europe, China and Egypt.

Chemical constituents: -

Fennel contains volatile oil (2-6.5%) and fixed oil (12%). The main constituent of the volatile oil are phenolic ether, anethole (50-60%) and the ketone, fenchone (18-20 %) which give the fruit its distinct odour and taste; the other constituents of volatile oil are anisic aldehyde, anisic acid, a- pinene, dipentene and phellandrene.

Uses: -

Fennel is used as stimulant, aromatic, stomachic, carminative, and expectorant. Anethole is used in mouth and dental preparations. Fennel is used in diseases of the chest, spleen and kidney. (1)

Clove


       
            Clove Buds.png
       

Figure 3 Clove Buds


Synonyms: -

Caryophyllus, Clove buds, Caryophyllum; Caryophylli; Laung (Hindi).

Biological source: -

Cloves are the dried flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb (Syn. Syzygium aromaticum. (Family: Myrtaceae).

Geographical source: -

The clove tree is native of Molucca Island. It is cultivated in Zanzibar, Sumatra, South America, West Indies, Brazil, Pemba, Ambon, Madagascar, Mauritius, Tanzania, Sri Lanka and South India.

Chemical Constituents: -

Clove contains 14-21% of volatile oil. The other constituents present are the eugenol, acetyl eugenol, gallotannic acid, and two crystalline principles; a- and ß- caryophyllenes, methyl furfural, gum, resin, and fiber.  Caryophylline is odorless component and appears to be a phytosterol, whereas eugenol is a colorless liquid. Clove oil has 60-90% eugenol, which is the cause of its anesthetic and antiseptic properties.

Uses:

Used for upset stomach and as an expectorant close is used for diarrhea hernia and bad breath (1).

Tulsi: -


       
            Tulsi Leaves.png
       

Figure 4 Tulsi Leaves


Synonyms: - Sacred basil, Holy basil

Biological Source: -

Tulsi consists of fresh and dried leaves of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Syn. Ocimum tenuiflorum) umily Lamiaceae, and contains not less than 0.40 per cent eugenol on dried basis.

Geographical Source: -

It is herbaceous, multi branched annual plant found throughout India. It is considered as acred by Hindus.  The  plant  is  commonly  cultivated  in  garden  and  also  grown  near  temples.  It  is propagated by seeds, Currently Tulsi is cultivated commercially for its volatile oil.

Chemical constituents: -

It contains approximately 70 per cent eugenol, carvacrol (3%) and eugenol-methyl-ether (20%). It also contains caryophyllin. Seeds contain fixed oil with good drying properties.

Uses: -

The oil is antibacterial and insecticidal. The leaves are used as stimulant, aromatic, anticatarrhal, spasmolytic, and diaphoretic. The juice is used as an antiperiodic.Tulsi has expectorant and anti- inflammatory properties.(2)

Turmeric: -


       
            Turmeric Rhizomes.png
       

Figure 5 Turmeric Rhizomes


Synonyms:-

Curcuma

Biological source:-

Turmeric is prepared rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae). It is perennial herb of ginger family, having thick rhizome; native to Southern Asia; extensively cultivated in India, China Indonesia and other tropical countries.

Chemical Constituents:-

Turmeric  contains  3-7%  orange-yellow  colored  volatile  oil  which  is  mainly  composed  of turmerone (60%), a, ß-atlantone and zingiberene (25%) with minor amounts of 1,8 cineole, a- phellandrene,  d  sabinene  and borneol.  Others than  above it  contains yellow  coloring matter including 0.3-5.4%.

Uses:-

It is used as an antioxidant in capsules tablets and flavouring tea. It is recommended as a food supplement to treat liver problems menstrual difficulties himarej test pain etc.(3)

Adulsa:-


       
            Adulsa Leaves.png
       

Figure 6 Adulsa Leaves


Synonyms: -

Malabar nut, Adhatodavasica

Biological source: -

The biological  source  of vasaka  is  dried  and  fresh  leaves  of this plant.  It belongs to  family acanthaceae.

Chemical constituents:-

The chemical constituent of vasaka are alkalis tannins flavonoids Serpent sugar and glucoside. The  leaves  of Osaka  contain Vitamin  C  in  large  amount.  The  roots  of these plant  contain vasicinolone, basil and peganine.

Uses:-

Used as expectorant. It is used to treat leprosy blood disorder thirst and vomiting. It is used to treat infertility it also have anti-ulcer activity.

Formulation:-

Extraction Process: -

Decoction of fennel, Clove and Turmeric: -

  • 5-7 gm of each herbal ingredients
  • Herbs was mixed using 500ml of water
  • Attach reflux condenser and material was boil under carefully by using water bath for 3 hrs.
  • Boil until total volume become one forth part of previous
  • Then liquid was cooled and filtered. (10)

       
            Extraction of clove, fennel & turmeric.png
       

Figure 7 Extraction of clove, fennel & turmeric


Preparation of leaf extract of adulsa:-

Fresh leaves of A. vasica were harvested and thoroughly washed in tap water. 50m of leaves were macerated to paste with the help of sterilized mortar and pestle with 50ml tap water and it was filtered  through  muslin  cloth.  The  filtrate  was  kept  frozen  at  4°C  and  used  in  subsequent experiments as stock solution.


       
            Extraction of adulsa.jpg
       

Figure 8 Extraction of adulsa


Extraction of tulsi:-

Leaves of Ocimum sanctum L. tulsi were collected from different sites washed with sterile water and 50g of tulsi was placed in the thimble of soxhlet apparatus with 50ml of water and 50 ml of ethanol over 24hr.


       
            Extraction of tulsi.png
       

Figure 9 Extraction of tulsi


       
            Extract of Adulsa, clove, fennel, turmeric, tulsi & lemongrass.png
       

Figure 10 Extract of Adulsa, clove, fennel, turmeric, tulsi & lemongrass


Method Of Preparation Of Cough Syrup:-


       
            Method Of Preparation Of Cough Syrup.png
       


Formulation Table: -

For Bottle A


       
            For Bottle A.png
       


For Bottle B


       
            For Bottle B.png
       

Evaluation Test:-

1) Colour examination

  1. 5ml of prepared syrup was taken on a watch glass.
  2. Watch glass placed against white background in white tube light.
  3. Colour was observed by naked eyes.(10)

2) Odour examination

  1. 2 ml of prepared syrup was taken and smelled by individual
  2. The time interval between 2 smelling was 2 min. to nullify effect of previous smelling. (10)

3) Taste examination

A pinch of final syrup was taken and examined on taste buds of the tongue.(10)

4) pH determination

  1. 10 ml of prepared syrup taken in 100 ml of volumetric flask
  2. Makeup volume to 100 ml with distilled water
  3. Sonicate for 10 min
  4. pH was measured by using digital pH meter.(10)

5) Viscosity determination

The viscosity of each formulation was determined by using Ostwald's U-tube viscometer

6) Determination of density

  1. Density of the syrup is determine by using density bottle method by measuring the weight and volume. Density is calculated as a substances mass per the volume it occupies
  2. The symbol "p" is used to denote density.10)

7) Determination of anti-microbial activity

Agar cup plate method was used for screening of antimicrobial activity of herbal cough syrup. The formulations were placed aseptically in cups of agar plate which was previously inoculated with culture. The plates were left at ambient temperature for 30 min. prior to incubation at 37?C for 24 hrs. The antibiotic i.e. Amikacin was used as positive control for obtaining comparative results. Plates were  observed  after 24-48 hrs.  incubation  for the  appearance  of the zone  of inhibition. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the diameter of zones of inhibition (millimeters) of microbial growth.


       
            Formulation A & B of herbal cough syrup.png
       

Figure 11 Formulation A & B of herbal cough syrup


Results And Discussion: -


       
            In this test colour, odour and taste of formulation was checked.png
       

Table 1: - In this test colour, odour and taste of formulation was checked


       
            pH observation.png
       

Table 2: - pH observation


       
            viscosity observation.png
       

Table 3: -viscosity observation


       
            Density.png
       

Table 4: - Density


Anti-microbial activity of formulated herbal cough syrup was observed:

Formulation A & B are evaluated for it’s in-vitro anti-microbial activity by using standard amikacin. From the zone of inhibition, the formulation B was found more superficial toward anti-microbial activity as compared to formulation A.


       
            Antimicrobial activity of herbal cough syrup.png
       

Figure 12 Antimicrobial activity of herbal cough syrup


CONCLUSION

An ancient time peoples use various plant, roots, and leaves for treatment various disease. Herbal cough syrup is an Ayurveda medicine which is useful in many chronic health problem such as cough, cold, fever, respiratory infection and disorders among human. As a combination of herbs, it is safe, can be made at home, has a low production cost, and can be easily available in any area. Herbal syrup including natural herbs, like tulsi, clove, fennel, turmeric and adulsa which have various action and effect on reducing acute or chronic cough and cold and act as cough suppressant having expectorant and anti-tussive property. In this review, I conclude about herbal  cough  syrup that, herbal  cough  syrups  is  a  safest herbal medicine which  is use  for treatment of cough and cold.

REFERENCE

  1. Mohammed Ali, Pharmacognosy And phytochemistry,  cbs  Publishers  And  Distribution, New Delhi , first edition 2007,reprint-2018,(1)  454- 457 And 432-434.
  2. C.K.Kokate, A.P Purohit, S.B.Gobhale, Pharmacognosy 50th Edition, 2014, 14.67 – 14.68.
  3. A. N. kalia, Textbook of Industrial Pharmacognosy, cbs Publication New Delhi, first edition 2005,reprint-2017,  238-239.
  4. R.S Gaud, G. P. Gupta, Practical Pharmaceutics, first edition 2002,reprint-2007, 226-241
  5. Anu Kaushik Vivek, Chauhan and Dr. Sudha, Formulation and Evaluation Of Herbal Cough Syrup. European Journal of Pharmaceutical & Medical Research, 2016; 3(5): 517-522.
  6. Motuma  adimasu  abeshu  and  bekesho  geleta,  “A  review  “Medicinal  Uses  of Honey”, Biology and Medicine, (Aligarh) 2016, 8:2.
  7. Meenakshi parihar, Ankit Chouhan, M. S. Harsoliya, J. K. Pathan, S. Banerjee, N. Khan, V.   M. Patel, “ A Review- Cough & Treatments”, International Journal of Natural Products Research, May 2011, 1(1): 9- 18.
  8. Farhat pirjade mujawar, manojkumar patil, jyotiram sawale. “Formulation And Evaluation of Herbal Cough  Syrup  of  echinops  echinatus  roxb  Roots”,  International  Journal  of Pharmacy & Technology, 09- 06-2016, ISSN: 0975-766X.
  9. G. sandhyarani and K. Praveen Kumar, Development of Herbal Syrup, Asian Journal         of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, 2014; 4(2): 101- 103.
  10. Ankush Patil, Kaivalya Mirajakar, Pranav  Savekar,  Chetana Bugadikattikar, SomeshShintre   “Formulation  and Evaluation  of Ginger Macerated Honey Base Herbal  Cough Syrup”, International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology ISSN No:- June 2020.(5), 2456-2165.

Reference

  1. Mohammed Ali, Pharmacognosy And phytochemistry,  cbs  Publishers  And  Distribution, New Delhi , first edition 2007,reprint-2018,(1)  454- 457 And 432-434.
  2. C.K.Kokate, A.P Purohit, S.B.Gobhale, Pharmacognosy 50th Edition, 2014, 14.67 – 14.68.
  3. A. N. kalia, Textbook of Industrial Pharmacognosy, cbs Publication New Delhi, first edition 2005,reprint-2017,  238-239.
  4. R.S Gaud, G. P. Gupta, Practical Pharmaceutics, first edition 2002,reprint-2007, 226-241
  5. Anu Kaushik Vivek, Chauhan and Dr. Sudha, Formulation and Evaluation Of Herbal Cough Syrup. European Journal of Pharmaceutical & Medical Research, 2016; 3(5): 517-522.
  6. Motuma  adimasu  abeshu  and  bekesho  geleta,  “A  review  “Medicinal  Uses  of Honey”, Biology and Medicine, (Aligarh) 2016, 8:2.
  7. Meenakshi parihar, Ankit Chouhan, M. S. Harsoliya, J. K. Pathan, S. Banerjee, N. Khan, V.   M. Patel, “ A Review- Cough & Treatments”, International Journal of Natural Products Research, May 2011, 1(1): 9- 18.
  8. Farhat pirjade mujawar, manojkumar patil, jyotiram sawale. “Formulation And Evaluation of Herbal Cough  Syrup  of  echinops  echinatus  roxb  Roots”,  International  Journal  of Pharmacy & Technology, 09- 06-2016, ISSN: 0975-766X.
  9. G. sandhyarani and K. Praveen Kumar, Development of Herbal Syrup, Asian Journal         of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, 2014; 4(2): 101- 103.
  10. Ankush Patil, Kaivalya Mirajakar, Pranav  Savekar,  Chetana Bugadikattikar, SomeshShintre   “Formulation  and Evaluation  of Ginger Macerated Honey Base Herbal  Cough Syrup”, International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology ISSN No:- June 2020.(5), 2456-2165.

Photo
Lodwal Pavanraj Bhagwan
Corresponding author

UG Scholar of Rashtriya College of Pharmcy Hatnoor, Kannad Sambhajinagar Maharashtra, Inida

Photo
Tejaswini Kanhaiyasing Pardeshi
Co-author

UG Scholar of Rashtriya College of Pharmcy Hatnoor, Kannad Sambhajinagar Maharashtra, Inida

Photo
asst. prof. Ram B Ingle
Co-author

Assistant Professor, Rashtriya College of Pharmcy Hatnoor, Kannad Sambhajinagar Maharashtra, Inida. 431103.

Photo
Kale Dipak Raju
Co-author

UG Scholar of Rashtriya College of Pharmcy Hatnoor, Kannad Sambhajinagar Maharashtra, Inida

Lodwal Pavanraj, Tejaswini K Pardeshi, Ingle R. B., Kale Dipak R., Formulation And Evaluation Of Herbal Cough Syrup, Int. J. of Pharm. Sci., 2024, Vol 2, Issue 6, 1179-1186. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.12545120

More related articles
Formulation And Evaluation of Multipurpose Herbal ...
Akash Jayaprakash, Ahalya. S. S, Arya Babu, V. F. Sony, Vishnu Na...
Navigating Neurological Risks After COVID-19 Vacci...
Arnab Roy, K. Rajeswar Dutt, Ankita Singh, Mahesh Kumar Yadav, Ma...
Thin Layer Chromatographic And UV Spectrophotometr...
Samuel J. Bunu, Veronica Aniako, Varsharani P. Karade, Edebi N. V...
Analytical Profiling of Eliglustat for Gaucher Disease: Method Development and V...
Abhishek Lawsare, Abhishek Lawsare, Vaishnavi Umretkar, Shyam Rangari, Milind Umekar, ...
Acupuncture Treatment With ST9, LI18, And Acupressure K27 For Multi Nodular Goit...
Syam Kumar, S T Venkateshwaran, Geethanjali Sankar, Jaheer Hussain, Keerthika G, ...
Role of regulatory intelligence in pharmacovigilance...
Chaitali Bansod, A. K. Hatkar, R. M. Kawade, ...
Related Articles
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Morphological Evaluation And Physicochemica...
Pratibha Rana, Chinu Kumari, Dev Prakash Dahiya, Nutan Thakur , Munish choudhary, Anita Kumari, ...
Biological Activities Of Ginseng And Its Application To Human Health...
Tushar Dewangan , Suraj Sahu, Suraj Patel, Miss Divyani Soni, Dr. Shruti Rathore, ...
Formulation And Evaluation Study Of Herbal Buccal Patch For Mouth Ulcer With Cur...
Daphne Sherine S, Ravichandran S., Abjel A., Gopi S., Sukesh Kumar B., ...
Formulation And Evaluation of Multipurpose Herbal Cream...
Akash Jayaprakash, Ahalya. S. S, Arya Babu, V. F. Sony, Vishnu Narayanan, Dr. Prasobh. G. R, Varsha....
More related articles
Formulation And Evaluation of Multipurpose Herbal Cream...
Akash Jayaprakash, Ahalya. S. S, Arya Babu, V. F. Sony, Vishnu Narayanan, Dr. Prasobh. G. R, Varsha....
Navigating Neurological Risks After COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign: Insights And ...
Arnab Roy, K. Rajeswar Dutt, Ankita Singh, Mahesh Kumar Yadav, Manav Kumar, Kajal Kumari, Saurabh Ch...
Thin Layer Chromatographic And UV Spectrophotometric Analysis Of Frequently Util...
Samuel J. Bunu, Veronica Aniako, Varsharani P. Karade, Edebi N. Vaikosen, Benjamin U. Ebeshi, ...
Formulation And Evaluation of Multipurpose Herbal Cream...
Akash Jayaprakash, Ahalya. S. S, Arya Babu, V. F. Sony, Vishnu Narayanan, Dr. Prasobh. G. R, Varsha....
Navigating Neurological Risks After COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign: Insights And ...
Arnab Roy, K. Rajeswar Dutt, Ankita Singh, Mahesh Kumar Yadav, Manav Kumar, Kajal Kumari, Saurabh Ch...
Thin Layer Chromatographic And UV Spectrophotometric Analysis Of Frequently Util...
Samuel J. Bunu, Veronica Aniako, Varsharani P. Karade, Edebi N. Vaikosen, Benjamin U. Ebeshi, ...