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  • Contemporary Understanding Of Patho-Physiology Of Grahani Roga
  • 1Final year PG scholar , Dept of kriya Shareera  SJG ayurveda Medical College and Hospital, Koppal -583231
    2HOD and Professor  , Dept of kriya Shareera  SJG ayurveda Medical College and Hospital, Koppal -583231
    3 Assistant professor, Dept of kriya Shareera  SJG ayurveda Medical College and Hospital, Koppal -583231
     

Abstract

In the Present scenario with busy schedule and stress every individual are lacking healthy diet. Hence GIT disorders becoming more serious issue in the world. According to our Ayurveda literature, it is clearly mentioned that Mandagni, is the root cause for the manifestation of all Vyadhi, where Grahani Roga is a prime disease of GIT, which is commonly seen in day today practice. Grahani is vitiated due to Mithya Ahara Vihara, [Incompatible diet &lifestyle practices] Asatmya Bhojana, [Unwholesome food] and Vishamshana, [irregular &improper diet habit] causing impairment of Agni leads to formation of Ama dosha, which may result in Grahani Roga. It is one among the Astha Maha Gada. The Dosha which are being aggravated in Grahani is called Grahani Dosha.The Pakwa and Apkawa Vidgdha Ahara moves downward by the Guda Marga (Rectal route) is called Grahani Gada.The signs and symptoms of Grahani Roga can be correlated with Contemporary Science such as IBS/Ulcerative colitis/Mal- Absorption Syndrome/Intestinal tuberculosis. In the current Mechanized life, health of an individual is directly related to lifestyle, especially diet habits. According to Prevalence rate of IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) in the world is being estimated to be 11.2%, in India which is 4.2 to 7.7% it is seen in working aged people between (28 to 55 years) and it is more common in women. And in this Article an Attempt has been made to Understand the Physiological and Pathological basis of Grahani for the treatment of Grahani Dosha.

Keywords

Agni, Mandagni, Vyadhi, Grahani, GIT, IBS

Introduction

In the Modern era due to irregular food habits lifestyle disorders such as GIT problems are increasing day by day leading to vitiation of Agni1.Mandagni is the root cause for many Diseases. As diseases are due to Malfunctioning of Agni, it plays an important role in Ahara Pachana (Digestion of food) 2. Agni is one of the Dwadasha Prana. The seat of Agni is Grahani.3 In view of Astanga Sangraha, Grahani is termed as Pittadharakala (6th kala) is situated between Amashaya and Pakwashaya which receives and does Grahana (holding) of Ahara. Grahani get vitiated due to improper food habits leading to the formation of Ama resulting in manifestation of many Vyadhis such as Ajeerna, Atisara, Grahani Roga. Impairment of Agni and Tridosha leads to Grahani Dosha.4 In Contemporary Science GI disorder are having few symptoms which can be co- related with Grahani Roga lakshanas one of them is IBS. IBS is found in day-to-day practice and having more prevalence rate and it has been defined as a functional disorder of GIT without any structural defect in which normal bowel activity is either exaggerated or affected. In such way that it leads to Constipation or Diarrhoea.5

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

References related to proposed Title collected from classics texts of Ayurveda, various publication, Internet, Research papers and proceedings of seminars related to the topics are collected.

AGNI:

In Vachaspathyam Agni is defined as " Nayate prinamayaitti" meaning which does the transformation of Ingested Ahara. Ingested Ahara is to be Digested, absorbed, and assimilated which is unavoidable for the maintenance of life. Agni converts the food in the form of Energy, which is responsible for all the vital functions of our body. So, Ayurveda Considered as jataragni is the Cause for Life, complexion, strength, health, nourishment, lustre, and formation of, Oja Teja and with holds Prana. Non-functioning of, Jataragni leads to Death of the person and when Agni is Sama, person will be healthy and lead a happy long life.  Agni is of 4 types they are Visamagni, Tikshnagni, Mandagni, and Samagni. According to Acharya Sushruta, there is not any other Agni in the body without Pitta. Acharya Maricha also considers Agni present in the Pitta gives good or bad results when it is normal or vitiated. The function of Agni is attributed to Pachaka Pitta since the term Pitta derived from "TAPA SANTAPE" is like Agni. “ROGAHA SARVE API MANDAAGNAU ". The Mandagni is the root cause for all the diseases. So, Agni Dusthi is the primary cause for Vitiation of Grahani.

GRAHANI ROGA:

The word Grahani is derived from Dhatu " Graha"which means to ‘to hold’ or ‘to get’ ‘To retain’. Grahani is considered as specialized part of Maha Srotas. If an individual indulges in food without following the rules and regulation of diet intake the person immediately suffers from disease caused by the impairment of Agni leading to vitiation of Grahani. Grahani is it is site of Agni, and it holds the Ahara, and it is the site which situated just above the Nabhi [umbilical region]. Grahani is supported as well as nourished by the Agni. When the status Agni is weak & vitiated due to improper Ahara and Vihara leads to Grahani Roga. In Grahani Roga, the food remains in the state of Vidagdha (partly indigestion) when partially digested & partially undigested Ahara moves downward in GIT it produces disorder called Grahani Gada. In Madhava Nidana Sangraha Grahni & Ghati antra Grahani have been described separately. In Siddanta Nidana, five other varieties have been described by Charaka. Those are Sangraha Grahani, Raja Grahani, Kshataja Grahani, Kshayaja Grahani, Niramaka Grahani. In Grahani Roga main root cause is the impairment in the function of Agni and is classified into 4 types namely Vataja Grahani, Pittaja Grahani, Kaphaja Grahani, & Sannipataja Grahani. Muhur baddham and Muhur-Dravam (passage of stools alternated with constipation or diarrhea) is the cardinal symptom of Grahani Roga.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF GRAHANI ROGA:



       
            Picture1.png
       

    

FIG no 1 :  Schematic representation of pathophysiology of Grahani Roga


IBS [ IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME]

 Irritable Bowel Syndrome is the most prevalent functional GI disorder noted in the general population Worldwide.IBS is not a disease it’s a functional disorder which that the bowel simply does not work as it should.

Causes-

  1. Diet
  2. Stress, anxiety, or depression
  3. Intolerance to food item
  4. Change in the Gut microbiota
  5. Infection

SYMPTOMS-

  1. Abdominal pain
  2. Bloating
  3. Constipation
  4. Diarrhoea
  5. Flatulence
  6. Nausea
  7. Headache
  8. Loss of Appetite

GUT BRAIN AXIS-

It is a bi-directional communication between GUT and BRAIN. The key regulator of GUT BRAIN axis is the MICROBIOTA. There are FOUR channels of communication between GUT and BRAIN.



       
            Screenshot 2024-04-28 221044.png
       

    


DISCUSSION:

Grahani Roga is the Tridoshatmaka Vyadhi. Mandagni is the root causes for all Vyadhis in which Grahani Roga is one. It is one among the Annavaha Sroto Vikara which occurs due to Vitiation of Pachaka Pitta, Samana Vayu, Apana Vayu and Kledaka Kapha. In this article it is being focused on contemporary sciences, as whichcan be compared with IBS-C [Muhurbadha] and IBS-D [ Muhurdrava]. AS IBS is due to dysregulation of brain-gut-axis, it hampers the normal function of nervous system of GI Tract, which lead to abnormal peristaltic movement.



       
            Screenshot 2024-04-28 221133.png
       

    


CONCLUSION:

In the present era sedentary lifestyle and work stress, people are failing in maintaining the diet pattern which is impacting on normal functioning of GIT causing abnormalities. many GI disorders having symptoms like Grahani Roga lakshanas, Normal functioning of GUT-BRAIN AXIS should be maintained to avoid GI diseases. As gut microbe plays a major role in IBS hence, by maintaining the microbe in the gut with Antibiotics or Probiotics, might improve the symptoms of IBS which is not a permanent solution. As Grahani Roga is related with the GI tract disorder in which there is improper digestion and assimilation of the food consumed. The first and foremost importance to be given in correction of impaired Agni as mentioned in our classics which are highly effective and potent to treat Grahani Roga.

REFERENCE:

  1. Dr. R. Vaidyanathan, Astanga hrudya forward by prof. R. H. Singh edition2012, Chaukhambha surabhati Prakashan Varanasi, chapter 12, sloka 10-12, page. No 200.
  2. Dr. Kashinath Shastri Charaka Samhita forward by vd. Yadavji Trimakji acharya part 2 Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan Varanasi, chapter 15 sloka no 3-4, page no 382.
  3. Dr. Anna Moreshwar kunte Astanga hrudya forward by Hari Sadasiva shastri Parada kara Chaukhambha Sanskrit shamshaan Varanasi, chapter 12 sloka no 1 page no 513.
  4. Medical presecpitve of Ama as per ayurveda by Dr Akash Kumar C. R. Yadav and M. S. Meena.
  5. IBS A Review article by H. Vahedi, R. Ansari, (middle East journal of digestive disease).

Applied Physiology of Grahani Roga with emphasis on Malabsorption syndrome by Dr. Jaibheem, Dr. Ginni Somnath SDM college of ayurveda and Hospital Hassan AYURPUB.COM Jan Feb 2017 volume 2 Issue 1

Reference

  1. Dr. R. Vaidyanathan, Astanga hrudya forward by prof. R. H. Singh edition2012, Chaukhambha surabhati Prakashan Varanasi, chapter 12, sloka 10-12, page. No 200.
  2. Dr. Kashinath Shastri Charaka Samhita forward by vd. Yadavji Trimakji acharya part 2 Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan Varanasi, chapter 15 sloka no 3-4, page no 382.
  3. Dr. Anna Moreshwar kunte Astanga hrudya forward by Hari Sadasiva shastri Parada kara Chaukhambha Sanskrit shamshaan Varanasi, chapter 12 sloka no 1 page no 513.
  4. Medical presecpitve of Ama as per ayurveda by Dr Akash Kumar C. R. Yadav and M. S. Meena.
  5. IBS A Review article by H. Vahedi, R. Ansari, (middle East journal of digestive disease).
  6. Applied Physiology of Grahani Roga with emphasis on Malabsorption syndrome by Dr. Jaibheem, Dr. Ginni Somnath SDM college of ayurveda and Hospital Hassan AYURPUB.COM Jan Feb 2017 volume 2 Issue 1

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Jotiram Maske Patil
Corresponding author

HOD and Professor , Dept of kriya Shareera SJG ayurveda Medical College and Hospital, Koppal -583231

Photo
Basavanthrao Patil
Co-author

Final year PG scholar , Dept of kriya Shareera SJG ayurveda Medical College and Hospital, Koppal -583231

Photo
Mukambika. K
Co-author

Assistant professor, Dept of kriya Shareera SJG ayurveda Medical College and Hospital, Koppal -583231

Basavanthrao Patil, Jotiram Maske Patil, Mukambika. K. , Contemporary Understanding Of Patho-Physiology Of Grahani Roga, Int. J. of Pharm. Sci., 2024, Vol 2, Issue 4, 1237-1240. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11080788

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