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Abstract

Excipients play an important part in formulating a lozenge form. These are the constituents which along with Active Pharmaceutical constituents make up the lozenge forms. Excipients act as defensive agents, bulking agents and can also be used to ameliorate bioavailability of medicines in some cases, the following review discusses the colorful types and sources of excipients along with their uses, and these can be used for different conditioning. Some excipient relations can be mischievous and need to be avoided. This has been detailed out in the commerce section. Excipients as like other active pharmaceutical constituents need to be stabilized and formalized; the following review gives brief information about standardization and stabilization process along with the safety evaluation parameters of the excipients

Keywords

excipients , interaction , co-processed excipients,standardization

Introduction

Excipients in medicinals are substances other than the pharmacologically active medicine or active constituents that are included in the manufacturing process or are contained in a ?inished pharmaceutical product lozenge form. The excipient has numerous functions in the form of a pharmaceutical medication, including solubility modulation & API bioavailability, enhancing the stability of active component in the lozenge forms, helping the active component maintains preferred polymorphic forms or conformations, disintegrant, lubricant, binder, and ?iller. In opting pharmaceutical excipients, dosag forms and medicine products the excipient must have a standard to assure the harmonious quality and functioning of the excipient. In the solid lozenge form, the medicine is in intimate contact with one or further excipient; the ultimate may affect the stability of the medicine. Knowledge of medicine excipient commerce is veritably useful for inventors in choosing the right excipients. This information may formerly live for given medicines( Patel etal., 2011).

Need for new Excipients:-

 Excipients help in maintaining a good safety and stability profile of the medicine product. The development of new excipients has been request- driven over the times with an ever- adding demand for excipients with bettered physicochemical and stability parcels. thus, there is growing pressure on the hunt for new excipients that will enhance the overall stability and parcels of the expression

Types of Insecurity  Excipients :-

may be affected by chemical, physical, or  microbiological insecurity. Physical insecurity involves phase   metamorphosis of the excipients, which may be due to  polymorphic changes, hydration and dehumidification,  rush, or changes in the  unformed or  liquid nature. The  phase  metamorphosis can  do via aggregation, coagulation,  melting, or detergent-  intermediated mechanisms( solubility). Thermal stresses during manufacturing processes  similar as milling,  dry granulation, and  contraction could beget these phase   metamorphoses. Physical changes in the excipient during  manufacturing and  storehouse can  master its purpose of selection .  Chemical insecurity may  do owing to thermolytic,  oxidative, or photolytic  declination. Hydrolysis, a type of  thermolytic  declination, and oxidation, which is  generally   intermediated by peroxides, are the major causes of excipient   declination. Oxidative  declination may also  do via  transition essence-  intermediated electron transfer or by autoxidation, which involves free  revolutionary- initiated chain  responses.  Excipients also have the tendency to absorb light and  therefore  degrade photolytically and their reactivity is  frequently advanced in  the agitated energy  countries( 3,5).  Microbiological insecurity would be a result of failure of  preservative in the  expression due to commerce,  declination, or loss from the system.  Solid Oral Lozenge Forms  The oral route is the most patient- biddable and  conventional route of  medicine administration. specifics  similar  as tablets, capsules,  capsules, and solid maquillages can be administered orally to achieve the asked   remedial  goods. These   specifics are generally formulated with or witho of scaling- up, and brittle fracture propensity. DCPD has a high stoichiometric water content of20.9( w/ w), and as a diluent, it can constitute over 50( w/ w) of the capsule form. The dehydration behavior of DCPD is unusual as it's accelerated in the presence of water vapor and hindered under dry conditions. The dehydration of a small bit of DCPD can release sufficient water to beget physical and chemical changes in the expression. An important aspect of DCPD dehydration is that it's delicate and not generally apparent to descry the in situ release of water. Further, the water, if liberated, is readily taken up by one or farther factors in the expression. Lactose( ?- d- galactopyranosyl( 1- 4)- d- glucopyranose) is a regularly used accretive in the medicinal and food industriousness. It has a strong tendency to solidify from its unformed form when stored at high relative humidity. Lactose shows incompatibility with strong oxidizers. Anhydrous lactose has been set up to mount in the declination of drugs with ester and amidine groups via hydrolysis. Under high humidity conditions, lactose, which is a reducing sugar, has the tendency to interact with primary and secondary amines( Maillard response). unformed lactose has a truly low moisture content after spray- drying and exhibits hygroscopicity. The crystallization of lactose occurs with the increase in water content during storage over time, which leads to riming and cementing of the cream. Further, release of reprised fat has been observed when lactose crystallizes from maquillages of spray- dried sodium caseinate/ lactose mixes having an oil painting oil phase. Lactose shows incompatibility with aceclofenac, ketoprofen, lisinopril, and oxprenolol. Sorbitol in bulk form is hygroscopic, hence taking storage in a cool and dry place. In strongly acidic or introductory media, sorbitol reacts with divalent and trivalent substance ions to form water-answerable chelates. It forms a waxy, water-answerable gel with polyethylene glycol.

Types of Diluents:-

  Microcrystalline Cellulose MCC is a purified,  incompletely depolymerized  cellulose  deduced from ?- cellulose. MCC is a  protean excipient with  operation as  a diluent, binder, and disintegrant in oral solid lozenge forms. It's primarily  used as a diluent/ binder in direct  contraction and wet granulation process. As a diluent, it's used in tablet  phrasings in the range of 20 – 90 w/w.  MCC undergoes plastic  distortion and shows good compactability indeed at low   contraction pressures. still, it has poor inflow characteristics. It's available  in different  flyspeck sizes and consistence, with larger  flyspeck size and advanced bulk   viscosity helping in the inflow characteristics of  composites but at the cost of reduced  DILUENTS/ paddings 53  compactability. In direct  contraction process, it's  frequently used with other excipients  due to its comparatively high cost. In dry granulation, MCC is  frequently combined  with a diluent  similar as lactose with brittle  contraction property to  round  the  plastic  distortion  geste  of MCC. Wet granulation has been known to reduce  the compactability of MCC due to change in structure and loss of  relating  shells  8 – 10). Being hygroscopic in nature, it's important to control the  humidity content  in MCC especially for  humidity-sensitive  medicine substances. From a manufacturability  perspective, having optimum  humidity is helpful ago low and high  humidity may   concession compactability. Due to the capability of MCC to  suffer plastic   distortion, it's sensitive to magnesium stearate, with finer size bit being more  sensitive to lubricant and mixing  goods. Blending colloidal silica with MCC   previous to lubrication has been known to reduce magnesium stearate  perceptivity of MCC  due to preferential list of colloidal silica to magnesium stearate. In addition, being a plastically  screwing material, tabletability of MCC is also negatively  impacted with  adding  tablet press  pets due to time-dependent nature of plastic  inflow. A popular  system for  prostrating some of the undesirable  parcels of  MCC  bandied then's through coprocessing with other excipients. Coprocessing is  compactly  bandied at the end of this chapter. A recent  further comprehensive review on  MCC has been published by Thoorens etal.

Dibasic Calcium Phosphate:-

 Anhydrous and dihydrated forms of dibasic calcium phosphate( DCP) are used as paddings for oral solid capsule forms. It's farther generally used as a source of calcium in nutraceuticals than in the pharmaceutical sedulity. The popularity of DCP in the pharmaceutical sedulity is due to its excellent flux and compression In addition, due to advanced intraparticular porosity, corruption of anhydrous DCP is better than the dihydrate form. still, both forms of DCP do not induce good corruption force and needs a lump- type disintegrant in the expression when used. Different grades of DCP are available, with coarse grade used for direct compression and mulled grade for roller compression or wet granulation. The mulled grade has an alkaline pH and can't be used with API inharmonious with high pH. Being an inorganic tar, DCP can be abrasive on the tablet tooling. still, compared to MCC, it's less sensitive to magnesium stearate situations.

Excipients Added to Solid Oral Lozenge Forms to Improve Drug Solubility and/ or Dissolution

Excipients that Form Addition Complexes with medicine motes  The term ‘ complex  conformation ’ or ‘ complexation ’ refers to the list of two or  further individual   motes to form a  concerted chemical product, which act as a single chemical unit. One of the  most  constantly employed complexation  responses in pharmaceutical  lores is complexation of  medicine   motes with cyclodextrin  motes. Cyclodextrin is developed through an enzymatic  response  with  bounce to form a crystalline andnon-hygroscopic cone- shaped  patch that has ideal  parcels  for complexation with certain API  motes. Cyclodextrin  motes form addition complexes  with hydrophobic,non-polar  motes by accommodating them in the hydrophobic  depression of the  cone.  Cyclodextrins( CDs) are characterized by a toroidal shape with a lipophilic center and a hydrophilic   external  face. There are three natural cyclodextrins,  videlicet ?- cyclodextrin( ?CD), ?- cyclodextrin ( ?CD) and ?- cyclodextrin( ?CD), which have six, seven and eight glucose units, independently. The most  frequent  operation of forming addition complexes between cyclodextrin and an API is to increase  the apparent waterless solubility of the API( specifically those belonging to BSC class II and IV). Other   operations of complex  conformation include  enhancement of  medicine stability, minimization of adverse   medicine  goods or side-  goods and  enhancement of organoleptic  parcels  similar as taste and smell.  It's important to note,  still, that not all addition complex  conformations always  give an increase  in API solubility and/ or  immersion.  Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 393 4 of 17  Cyclodextrins have been extensively employed as solubility and dissolution modifying excipients in   colorful oral lozenge forms. These lozenge forms include conventional immediate release tablets, orally  disintegrating tablets, bouncy tablets, and modified release lozenge forms including slow release  or sustained release  medicine delivery systems( 18 – 20). Cyclodextrins are  frequently preferred over organic  detergents as a means to enhance solubility and dissolution due to their safety and because they are  well  permitted. In addition, advances in  inheritable engineering, technology and process  inventions led  to the  product of ?CD, ?CD as well as ?CD as pharmaceutical excipients on economically and  commercially  respectable scales. still, due to the  fairly low solubility as well as nephrotoxicity  of ?CD, it isn't suitable for parenteral administration. Accordingly,  further answerable and less  poisonous  cyclodextrin  derivations have been developed, which include hydroxypropyl- ?- cyclodextrin( HP- ?- CD)  and sulfobutylether- ?- cyclodextrin( SBE- ?- CD).  exemplifications of the  salutary  goods of cyclodextrins as functional excipients on APIs are  stressed  by Conceição etal., which include the increased solubility of carbamazepine by means of  complexation with HP- ?- CD. The effect of complexation of carbamazepine with HP- ?- CD is  farther  illustrated by a study conducted by Kou etal. A complex of HP- ?- CD with carbamazepine  was prepared in the presence of0.1 hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose( HPMC). The formed complex  had increased the solubility of carbamazepine up to 95 times when compared to the  medicine alone.  likewise, the complexation of carbamazepine with HP- ?- CD rendered a1.5-fold increase in  the bioavailability of carbamazepine in beagle  tykes  when compared with an immediate- release  commercially available carbamazepine tablet. The HP- ?- CD- containing  expression rendered a  maximum tube  attention( Cmax) of4951.04 ±1585.21 ng/ mL and area under the  wind( AUC0 – ?)  of8597.85 ±2786.18 ng · h/ mL in comparison to a Cmax of3577.99 ±1444.90 ng/ mL and AUC0 – ?  of6000.65 ±2227.61 ng · h/ mL for the commercially available  expression. The  enhancement in  bioavailability was attributed to an increase in dissolution rate of the HP- ?- cyclodextrin complex  containing  expression.  In a study by Desai etal.( 21), orally disintegrating tablets( ODTs) were prepared containing  an addition complex between eslicarbazepine and ?- CD, which was prepared by using a solid   dissipation  fashion. The ODT  expression displayed 100 dissolution within 60 min compared  to 72 dissolution for a commercially available tablet  expression. In an in vivo study in rabbits,  the ODT  expression displayed an advanced bioavailability in comparison to the commercially available   expression as characterized by a Tmax of 2 h, Cmax of6661.34 ng/ mL and AUC0 – ? of 49,887.9 ng/ mL · h  in comparison to a Tmax of 4 h, Cmax of2534.39 ng/ mL and AUC0 – ? of 23,684.7 ng/ mL · h for the   marketable  expression.

The ideal characteristics of an excipient are given as under:-

An excipient must be:-

  • Chemically stable
  • Non reactive
  • Low equipment and process sensitive
  • Inert to human body
  • Non toxic
  • Acceptable with regards to organoleptic
  • characteristics
  • Economical
  • Having efficiency in regards with the intended use.

Excipients even though considered inert substance,

Classification of excipients based on their

functions 10-13:-

Excipients are classified on the base of the functions  they perform  similar as-  colorful excipients used in solid lozenge forms  perform  colorful functions like-  Binders, diluents, lubricants, disintegrating agent’s  plasticizers etc,e.g. when 5  bounce is used in   expression it acts as a binder for tablet   phrasings where as when it's used in dry form  it can perform the function of a disintegrant.  Excipients that are used in liquid lozenge forms are-  Detergents co- detergents, buffersanti-microbial agents  emulsifying agents  enhancing agents, flavors, etc  Some excipients have  remedial values which are  classified as under-  Anesthetics 10- chloroform, etc  Laxatives- bentonite, psyllium, xanthan gum1

CONCLUSION:-

Meanwhile pharmaceutical industriousness have recognized their eventuality for delivering medicinal products and have launched several products for the OTC request using this technology. The fast dissolving thin film are hardly described and excavated in literature, but feel to be an ideal capsule form for use in immature children, especially in elderly and pediatric cases. They combine the lower stability of a solid capsule form and the good connection of a liquid. Due to lack of standard methodology for drug and analysis products actuality in the request is limited. Isosorbide mononitrate is not available as patient compliance orally disintegrating dosage form. Thus present attempt of developing Isosorbide mononitrate oral thin film was successful and the developed Isosorbide mononitrate oral thin film is a viable alternative for Isosorbide mononitrate immediate release tablets.dosage form is convenient for the geriatric patients and bedridden patients are unwilling to take solid do solid dosage form.

REFERENCE

  1. Patel, J.; Patel, K.R.; Patel, N.M.Review on fast dissolving film.Int. J.Univers. Pharm. Bio. Sci., 2013, 2(1), 149-162.
  2. Guidance for Industry Orally Disintegrating Tablets. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm070578.pdf. (Accessed March 4,2013).
  3. CENTER FOR DRUG EVALUATION AND RESEARCH. CMC review.http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2010/022524Orig1s000ChemR.pdf. (Accessed March 4, 2013).
  4. Dhere, P.M.; Patwekar, S.L. Review on preparation and evaluation of oral disintegrating films.Int. J. Pharm. Tech.,2011, 3(4), 1572-1585.
  5. Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Streisand, J.B. Oral mucosal drug delivery: Clinical pharmacokinetics and therapeutic applications. Clinical Pharmacokinetics.2002, 41, 661-680.
  6. Dixit, R.P.; Puthli, S.P. Oral strip technology overview and future potential. J. Controlled. Release, 2009, 139, 94-107.
  7. Siddiqui,M.D.N.; Garg, G.; Sharma, P.K. A short review on “A novel approach in oral fast dissolvingdrug delivery system and their patents”.Adv. Biol. Res.,2011,5(6), 291-303.
  8. Thin film technology. file:///G:/Oral films/Dissolvable films and ODT/dissol films.htm.(Accessed June 28, 2012).
  9. Kalyan, S.; Bansal, M. Recent trends in the development of oraldissolving film.Int.J. Pharm. Tech. Res., 2012,4(2), 725-733.
  10. Lou, H.; Liu, M.; Qu, W.; Hu, Z.; Brunson, E.; Johnson, J.; Almoazen, H.Evaluation of Chlorpheniramine Maleate microparticles in orally disintegrating film and orally disintegrating tablet for pediatrics.Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 2013.
  11. Sievens-Figueroa,L.; Bhakaya, A.; Jerez-Rozo, J.I.; Pandya, N. Roma ?nachb, R.J.; Michniak-Kohnd, B.; Iqbal, Z.; Bilgili, E.; Dave, R.N. Preparation and characterization of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose filmscontaining stable BCS Class II drug nanoparticles for pharmaceutical applications.Int. J. Pharm., 2012, 423, 496-508.
  12. Roche, E.J.; Freeman, E.M.; Papile, S.M. Taste mask coatings for preparing chewable pharmaceutical tablets. European Patent Application. EP0538034,April 21, 1993
  13. Andou, Y.; Hayata, K.; Mitake, K.; Takahashi, I.;Yamaga, H. Easily swallowablejelly like preparation containing Terfenadine. Japanese Patent, 10,007,565, January 13, 1998.
  14. Motola, S.; Agisim, G.R.; Mogavero, A. Palatable Ibuprofen solutions. U.S. Patent 5,024,997, June 18, 1991.
  15. Farmvita.net. Licensing and regulatory network.http://www.farmavita.net/content/view/862/96/ (Accessed June 28, 2012).
  16. Ozer, A.Y.; Hincal. A.A. Studies on the masking of unpleasant tast of Beclamide: Microcapsulation and tableting.J.Microencapsul.,1990, 7(3), 327-339.
  17. Jain, N.K. Advances in controlled and novel drug delivery, 1st ed.;2001, pp. 290-306.
  18. Kasturagi, Y.; Sagiura, Y.C.; Lee, K.; Otsugi; Kurihara. Selective inhibition of bitter taste of various drugs by lipoprotein.Pharm. Res., 1995, 12(5), 658-662.
  19. Corniello, C. Quick dissolving strips: From concept to commercialization. Drug Delivery Technol.,2006, 6, 68 -71.
  20. Nagar, P.; Chauhan, I.; Yasir, M. Insights into polymers: Film Formers in mouth dissolving films. Drug Invention Today, 2011, 3(12), 280-289.
  21. Gomez-Guillen, M.C.; Turnay, J.; Fernandez-Martin, F.;Ulmo, N.; Lizarbe, M.A.; Montero, P. Food hydrocolloid. 2002, 16, 25-34.
  22. Bourtoom, T.Edible films and coatings: characteristics and properties.Int. Food Res. J., 2008, 15(3), 1-15.
  23. Sobral, P.J.A.; Habitante, A.M.Q.B. Food hydrocolloid. 2001, 15, 377-382.
  24. Ghorwade, V.; Patil, A.; Patil, S.; Ikkurthi,K.; Inuganti, K.S.; Porandla, V.Formulation and evaluation of Montelukast sodium fast dissolving films by using gelatin as a film base. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem. Sci.,2011, 2(3), 880-888.
  25. Leduy, A.; Zajic, J.E.; Luong, J.H.T. Pullulan In: Encyclopedia Of polymer science and engineering, 2nd ed., Wiley & Sons,New York, 1988.
  26. Conca, K.R.; Yang, T.C.S. Edible food barrier coatings. In: Biodegradable polymers and packaging, Ching, C.; Kaplan, D.L.; Thomas, & E.L., Eds., Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., 1993, pp. 357-369.
  27. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Biopolymers: Making materials nature’s way-Background paper, OTA-BP-E-102 Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.
  28. Foss, C.D.; Hoffman, A.; Shen, S.; Stucky, A.M.; Turner, J.L. Edible Pullulan Films Containing Flavoring. U.S. Patent Application, 0011115 A1, January 8, 2009.
  29. Saini, S.; Samta, A,C.; Rana, G.S. Optimization of formulation of fast dissolving films made of pullulan polymer. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 2011, 9(1), 127-131

Reference

  1. Patel, J.; Patel, K.R.; Patel, N.M.Review on fast dissolving film.Int. J.Univers. Pharm. Bio. Sci., 2013, 2(1), 149-162.
  2. Guidance for Industry Orally Disintegrating Tablets. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm070578.pdf. (Accessed March 4,2013).
  3. CENTER FOR DRUG EVALUATION AND RESEARCH. CMC review.http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2010/022524Orig1s000ChemR.pdf. (Accessed March 4, 2013).
  4. Dhere, P.M.; Patwekar, S.L. Review on preparation and evaluation of oral disintegrating films.Int. J. Pharm. Tech.,2011, 3(4), 1572-1585.
  5. Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Streisand, J.B. Oral mucosal drug delivery: Clinical pharmacokinetics and therapeutic applications. Clinical Pharmacokinetics.2002, 41, 661-680.
  6. Dixit, R.P.; Puthli, S.P. Oral strip technology overview and future potential. J. Controlled. Release, 2009, 139, 94-107.
  7. Siddiqui,M.D.N.; Garg, G.; Sharma, P.K. A short review on “A novel approach in oral fast dissolvingdrug delivery system and their patents”.Adv. Biol. Res.,2011,5(6), 291-303.
  8. Thin film technology. file:///G:/Oral films/Dissolvable films and ODT/dissol films.htm.(Accessed June 28, 2012).
  9. Kalyan, S.; Bansal, M. Recent trends in the development of oraldissolving film.Int.J. Pharm. Tech. Res., 2012,4(2), 725-733.
  10. Lou, H.; Liu, M.; Qu, W.; Hu, Z.; Brunson, E.; Johnson, J.; Almoazen, H.Evaluation of Chlorpheniramine Maleate microparticles in orally disintegrating film and orally disintegrating tablet for pediatrics.Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 2013.
  11. Sievens-Figueroa,L.; Bhakaya, A.; Jerez-Rozo, J.I.; Pandya, N. Roma ?nachb, R.J.; Michniak-Kohnd, B.; Iqbal, Z.; Bilgili, E.; Dave, R.N. Preparation and characterization of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose filmscontaining stable BCS Class II drug nanoparticles for pharmaceutical applications.Int. J. Pharm., 2012, 423, 496-508.
  12. Roche, E.J.; Freeman, E.M.; Papile, S.M. Taste mask coatings for preparing chewable pharmaceutical tablets. European Patent Application. EP0538034,April 21, 1993
  13. Andou, Y.; Hayata, K.; Mitake, K.; Takahashi, I.;Yamaga, H. Easily swallowablejelly like preparation containing Terfenadine. Japanese Patent, 10,007,565, January 13, 1998.
  14. Motola, S.; Agisim, G.R.; Mogavero, A. Palatable Ibuprofen solutions. U.S. Patent 5,024,997, June 18, 1991.
  15. Farmvita.net. Licensing and regulatory network.http://www.farmavita.net/content/view/862/96/ (Accessed June 28, 2012).
  16. Ozer, A.Y.; Hincal. A.A. Studies on the masking of unpleasant tast of Beclamide: Microcapsulation and tableting.J.Microencapsul.,1990, 7(3), 327-339.
  17. Jain, N.K. Advances in controlled and novel drug delivery, 1st ed.;2001, pp. 290-306.
  18. Kasturagi, Y.; Sagiura, Y.C.; Lee, K.; Otsugi; Kurihara. Selective inhibition of bitter taste of various drugs by lipoprotein.Pharm. Res., 1995, 12(5), 658-662.
  19. Corniello, C. Quick dissolving strips: From concept to commercialization. Drug Delivery Technol.,2006, 6, 68 -71.
  20. Nagar, P.; Chauhan, I.; Yasir, M. Insights into polymers: Film Formers in mouth dissolving films. Drug Invention Today, 2011, 3(12), 280-289.
  21. Gomez-Guillen, M.C.; Turnay, J.; Fernandez-Martin, F.;Ulmo, N.; Lizarbe, M.A.; Montero, P. Food hydrocolloid. 2002, 16, 25-34.
  22. Bourtoom, T.Edible films and coatings: characteristics and properties.Int. Food Res. J., 2008, 15(3), 1-15.
  23. Sobral, P.J.A.; Habitante, A.M.Q.B. Food hydrocolloid. 2001, 15, 377-382.
  24. Ghorwade, V.; Patil, A.; Patil, S.; Ikkurthi,K.; Inuganti, K.S.; Porandla, V.Formulation and evaluation of Montelukast sodium fast dissolving films by using gelatin as a film base. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem. Sci.,2011, 2(3), 880-888.
  25. Leduy, A.; Zajic, J.E.; Luong, J.H.T. Pullulan In: Encyclopedia Of polymer science and engineering, 2nd ed., Wiley & Sons,New York, 1988.
  26. Conca, K.R.; Yang, T.C.S. Edible food barrier coatings. In: Biodegradable polymers and packaging, Ching, C.; Kaplan, D.L.; Thomas, & E.L., Eds., Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., 1993, pp. 357-369.
  27. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Biopolymers: Making materials nature’s way-Background paper, OTA-BP-E-102 Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.
  28. Foss, C.D.; Hoffman, A.; Shen, S.; Stucky, A.M.; Turner, J.L. Edible Pullulan Films Containing Flavoring. U.S. Patent Application, 0011115 A1, January 8, 2009.
  29. Saini, S.; Samta, A,C.; Rana, G.S. Optimization of formulation of fast dissolving films made of pullulan polymer. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 2011, 9(1), 127-131

Photo
Rajeshwari G. Khairnar
Corresponding author

Tadavrao Tasgaonkar Institute of Pharmacy, Bhivpuri road, Karjat

Photo
Aniket T. Chavan
Co-author

Tadavrao Tasgaonkar Institute of Pharmacy, Bhivpuri road, Karjat

Photo
Rupali R. Tasgaonkar
Co-author

Tadavrao Tasgaonkar Institute of Pharmacy, Bhivpuri road, Karjat

Rajeshwari Khairanar , Aniket T. Chavan, Rupali R. Tasgaokar, An Introduction To Pharmaceutical Excipients Use In Soid Oral Formulation : A Review, Int. J. of Pharm. Sci., 2024, Vol 2, Issue 4, 140-146. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10912711

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