View Article

Abstract

Cosmetic chemistry has permeated everyday life and made cosmetics "bath bombs". After bathing in the pool, feel your body relaxed, comfortable, pleasant and fragrant. Bath bombs are usually made with citric acid, sodium bicarbonate, corn starch, coconut oil, and various natural colors and flavors. The reaction of citric acid (C6H8O7) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in the presence of water produces CO2 gas, and the smell in the formula grows accordingly. Essentially, bath bombs are scented and formulated for a relaxing bath. The visual appearance, texture, nature and stability of formulation parameters, such as odor, pH and foam time, ensure that there are no significant changes during the test period. The purpose of this study is to successfully prepare medicinal bath bombs and evaluate them according to standard parameters.

Keywords

Bath bomb, Herbs, Medicated bath bomb, Formulation, Antimicrobial activity.

Introduction

The word cosmetics come from the Greek word “kosmtikos”, which means decorative art [1]. In the past, it was used to paint the body to instill fear of enemies and kill animals and enemies. Until 3000 BC, cosmetics were associated with hunting, religion, and prehistoric warfare. It is then used as a beauty and health product. Cosmetics are formulated for a variety of skin conditions and treatments, including wrinkles, acne, aging and oily skin. The beauty of the skin is determined by habits, health and environmental changes [2]. Herbal cosmetics are currently receiving a lot of attention due to their high availability and low pleiotropic effects. There are enough plants and plant extracts available in the market as cosmetics [3].

The requirements for the basic skin care:

Cleansing agent:

Removes impurities and dead cells that clog skin pores. Examples of cleansers include vegetable oils such as sesame oil and palm oil [4].

Toners:

This helps to tighten the skin and prevents it from being exposed to many toxic elements in the environment. Examples of toners include hazelnut, geranium, sage, lemon, burdock, and essential oils [5].

Moisturizing:

It helps in making the skin soft and supple. It exhibits a healthy glow and is resistant to aging [6]. Examples of herbal moisturizers include vegetable glycerin, sorbitol, rose water, jojoba oil, aloe vera, and iris [7].

Bath bombs:

Bath bombs are a popular way to create an invigorating, relaxing and aromatic bath. It is a weak acid and a solid mixture that does not react in the dry state, but reacts strongly with water to form salts, water, and carbon dioxide [8]. It is a solid compound weak acid and noble in the dry state, but it reacts strongly with salt in water and water to form carbon dioxide [8].

For example, citric acid reacts with sodium bicarbonate in the presence of water.

Medicated Bath Bomb:

This medicinal bath bomb contains plant leaf extract. Several studies have proven that betel nut extract has antifungal activity [9]. An affordable product that improves mental and physical health. Plant bath bombs can be customized based on the patterns and colors used to make them, and they come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and festive colors to add a fun and exciting feel to your bathroom [10]. Bath bombs are a simple preparation to make a soothing, relaxing and aromatic bath. Although this moniker seems ominous, the formula is very interesting. Common bath bombs use ingredients such as citric acid (C6H8O7), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), corn starch, coconut oil, and various natural colors and fragrances. The reaction in the presence of citric acid (C6H8O7) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) produces CO2 gas from an aqueous solution of the formula. Basically, bath bombs are made for a soothing and relaxing bath. This is a new idea to add healing properties to bath bombs, such as antibacterial and antifungal properties. Cinnamon oil is added to the recipe to provide antifungal and antibacterial properties, and MgSO4 (Epsom salt) is a muscle relaxant [11]. Many studies have proven that cinnamon extract has antifungal properties. The main component of the extract that has a killing effect on Candida albicans is cinnam aldehyde. Bath bombs made from ethanol extracts are effective in treating fungal skin infections. Patients use antibacterial, aromatic and relaxing baths. Turmeric compounds also have antibacterial properties. Bath bombs combine the benefits of therapy with pleasure and relaxation [11]. Herbal and medicinal bath bombs are designed to provide therapeutic and cosmetic benefits such as moisturizing, soothing, anti-bacterial, anti-bacterial, refreshing and cleansing.

Antimicrobial activity:

Antibacterial drugs are utilized as antibiotics to control contaminations in the human body, yet they can cause many side effects, particularly the increment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the human body [12,13]. ROS is extremely dangerous for human wellbeing and prosperity and is associated with the advancement of cancer growth [14-16]. Also, it might cause wellbeing chances [17-19]. Therapeutic plant materials utilized as medicinal plants include many plant species. Many compounds of this plant have medicinal properties such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity [20].

Applications of bath bombs [3,11,21,22]:

  • Bath bombs are a fun addition to all bath bombs.
  • Instantly transform your regular bathroom into a spa-like bathroom.
  • The oil in it is very effective in soothing and moisturizing many types of skin.
  • Sodium bicarbonate has a detoxifying effect in your bath.
  • Bath bomb scents are fun because there are so many scents to choose from.
  • Promotes balanced thinking and makes you feel relaxed after use.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Formulation table:



       
            Evaluation parameters.png
       

   

Table 1: Material used in the formulation

 

Procedure:

First all ingredients were weighed, sodium bicarbonate (50g), citric acid (25g) and corn starch (13.5g) are weighed and mixed well. Add coconut oil and color. Add 2 grams of honey, add perfume / fragrance. Mix all the ingredients; don’t add water, which will accelerate the neutralization reaction. Make the mixture slightly moist. Freeze the finished mixture for 30-55 minutes. Carefully remove of the bath bomb from the mold.

Evaluation parameters [2,8]:

  1. Physical appearance:

We collected five samples and evaluated their body appearance.

  1. Determination of PH:

The pH meter is calibrated using a standard buffer solution. The bath bomb sample was mixed with 500 ml of distilled water and left for 24 hours. I took 10 ml of this sample solution and measured the pH of the sample. Similarly, samples without cornstarch and Epsom salt were evaluated. Analysis of pH of samples measured and compared.

  1. Determination of effervescent time [8,23]:

The foaming time of the bath bomb formulation was evaluated and data obtained. Place the unopened bath bomb ingredients in a beaker containing 500 ml of room temperature distilled water. The collection time is finished when you get a clean and soap-free mixture. The average of five measurements should be reported for all formulations.

  1. Skin inflammation take a look at:

Sprinkle a powder sample from the bath bomb onto the subject's hand. Mark the field with a blue-black marker. Observe for at least 24 hours. Notice what reaction occurs.

  1. Study of water temperature:

Use a thermometer to measure the temperature of different bath bomb samples. Record and evaluate the exact temperature of your sample.

  1. Stability testing:

The bath bomb samples were kept at room temperature for 2 weeks and any changes were noted.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The herbal medicated bath bomb had been successfully formulated.



       
            Material used in the formulation.png
       

    

Table 2: Evaluation parameters



       
            Figure of physical appearance of all formulations (formulations i.e. F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5).png
       

    

Figure 1: Figure of physical appearance of all formulations (formulations i.e. F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5)


Reaction:

Citric acid + sodium bicarbonate + water ? salt + water + CO2

Citric acid + sodium bicarbonate + carbon dioxide in contact with water. It reacts as CO2 is produced, causing redness (fizzing) and foaming. Food coloring gently disperses with the color of bath water. Considering all the formulations, the major difference in all the formulations i.e. F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5 is in PH and the effervescent times.

For the bath bomb to show the anti-microbial or cleaning effects and the PH of formulations must be slightly alkaline (i.e. from 7.29 to 7.49). Considering all the formulations, the F3 formulation is having the slightly alkaline PH (i.e. 7.3), and also the effervescent time in the F3 formulation is 1.5 minutes, which was shows in the table 2. Hence, F3 formulation follows are the evaluation parameters are the being considered.

 

CONCLUSION:

As a starting point, we decided to mix and match naturally derived bath bombs. Bath bombs are good for health because they have antibacterial and antioxidant properties that inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Today, the face of the bath bomb has spread all over the world. Natural bath bombs do not create pores or skin infections and do not grow microorganisms during the test period. The visual appearance, texture, nature and stability of formulation parameters, such as odor, pH and foam time, ensure that there are no significant changes during the test period. The naturally derived bath bomb formulation ensures that the correct pH is around 7.8 and creates a rich lather and lather. Herbal medicinal bath bombs are designed to provide therapeutic and cosmetic benefits such as moisturizing, soothing, detoxifying, cleansing microorganisms and cleansing the body.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

We thank the teachers and college for their encouragement, support and for providing all the equipment and materials. This is a retrospective evaluation with data from previously published articles.

REFERENCES

  1. Pandey Shivanand, Meshya Nilam, Viral D, Herbs play an important role in the field of Cosmetics, International Journal of Pharma Tech Research, 2010; 2(1): 632-639.
  2. Kapoor VP, Herbal cosmetics for Skin and Hair care, Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2005; 4(4): 306-314. ISSN 0975-1092.
  3. Thasni KS, Silpa VS, et al. A review on formulation and evaluation of herbal derived bath bomb. 2022;10(4):d273-280.
  4. Plants Database. United States Department of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2006.
  5. Mortensen A, Skibsted LH, Relative stability of carotenoid radical cations and homologue tocopheroxyl radicals: A real time kinetic study antioxidant hierarchy, Federation of European Biochemical Societies, 1997;417(2):261-266.
  6. Frison S, Sporns O, Variation in the flavonol glycoside composition of almond seedcoats as determined by MALDI-TOF Mass spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002;50:6818-6822.
  7. Wijeratne SS, Abou-Zaid MM, Shahidi F, Antioxidant polyphenols in almond and its coproducts, Journal of Agricultural Food and Chemistry, 2006;54(3);312-318.
  8. Priya Jugale et.al. Preparation and evaluation of antifungal bath bomb of ethanolic extract of betel leaves. SGVU Jr. Pharm. Res. Edu. 2020;5(1):465-470.
  9. Walker, Barbara, and Mary E. Harris. "Bath Bubbler." Journal Of Chemical Education, 2003;80:12.
  10. Himanshu Jaiswal. Formulation and evaluation of an herbal medicated bath bomb: a boon to cosmeceuticals. LUIPS. 2023;40.
  11. Chetan S. Darne, Monika P. Maske, Pawan A. Gore, Jagdish R. Baheti, Formulation and Evaluation of Antifungal and Muscle Relaxant Herbal Bath Bomb Containing Cinnamon Oil, Int. J. in Pharm. Sci., 2023;1(9):355-360.
  12. Huh A.J., Kwon Y.J. Nanoantibiotics: A new paradigm for treating infectious diseases using nanomaterials in the antibiotics resistant era. J. Control. Release. 2011;156:128–145.
  13. Shaikh S., Nazam N., Rizvi SM D., Ahmad K., Baig M.H., Lee E.J., Choi I. Mechanistic insights into the antimicrobial actions of metallic nanoparticles and their implications for multidrug resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019;20:2468.
  14. Raut P.K., Kim S.H., Choi D.Y., Jeong G.S., Park P.H. Growth of breast cancer cells by leptin is mediated via activation of the inflammasome: Critical roles of estrogen receptor signaling and reactive oxygen species production. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2019;161:73–88.
  15. Nakamura Y., Arakawa H. Discovery of Mieap-regulated mitochondrial quality control as a new function of tumor suppressor p53. Cancer Sci. 2017;108:809–817.
  16. Kim S.H., Kim K.Y., Yu S.N., Park S.G., Yu H.S., Seo Y.K., Ahn S.C. Monensin induces PC-3 prostate cancer cell apoptosis via ROS production and Ca2+ homeostasis disruption. Anticancer Res. 2016;36:5835–5843.
  17. Panieri E., Santoro M.M. ROS homeostasis and metabolism: A dangerous liason in cancer cells. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:2253.
  18. Parham S., Nemati M., Sadir S., Bagherbaigi S., Wicaksono D.H., Nur H. In Situ Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles for Ag-NP/Cotton Nanocomposite and Its Bactericidal Effect. J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 2017;64:1286–1293.
  19. Parham S., Wicaksono D.H., Nur H. A proposed mechanism of action of textile/Al2O3–TiO2 bimetal oxide nanocomposite as an antimicrobial agent. J. Text. I. 2019;110:791–798.
  20. Parham S, Kharazi AZ, Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Nur H, Ismail AF, Sharif S, RamaKrishna S, Berto F. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiviral Properties of Herbal Materials. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Dec 21;9(12):1309.
  21. C. Valgas, S.M. De Souza, E.F.A. Smânia, et al. Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products Braz. J. Microbiol. 2007;38:369-380.
  22. Ramaiah Dr. Mariselvam & Aja Ranjitsingh & K. Kalirajan,. (2012). Anti-microbial Activity of Turmeric Natural Dye against Different Bacterial Strains. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2012;2:210-212.
  23. Patel Salim & Siddaiah M. Formulation and evaluation of effervescent tablets: a review. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2018;8:296-303.

Reference

  1. Pandey Shivanand, Meshya Nilam, Viral D, Herbs play an important role in the field of Cosmetics, International Journal of Pharma Tech Research, 2010; 2(1): 632-639.
  2. Kapoor VP, Herbal cosmetics for Skin and Hair care, Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2005; 4(4): 306-314. ISSN 0975-1092.
  3. Thasni KS, Silpa VS, et al. A review on formulation and evaluation of herbal derived bath bomb. 2022;10(4):d273-280.
  4. Plants Database. United States Department of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2006.
  5. Mortensen A, Skibsted LH, Relative stability of carotenoid radical cations and homologue tocopheroxyl radicals: A real time kinetic study antioxidant hierarchy, Federation of European Biochemical Societies, 1997;417(2):261-266.
  6. Frison S, Sporns O, Variation in the flavonol glycoside composition of almond seedcoats as determined by MALDI-TOF Mass spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002;50:6818-6822.
  7. Wijeratne SS, Abou-Zaid MM, Shahidi F, Antioxidant polyphenols in almond and its coproducts, Journal of Agricultural Food and Chemistry, 2006;54(3);312-318.
  8. Priya Jugale et.al. Preparation and evaluation of antifungal bath bomb of ethanolic extract of betel leaves. SGVU Jr. Pharm. Res. Edu. 2020;5(1):465-470.
  9. Walker, Barbara, and Mary E. Harris. "Bath Bubbler." Journal Of Chemical Education, 2003;80:12.
  10. Himanshu Jaiswal. Formulation and evaluation of an herbal medicated bath bomb: a boon to cosmeceuticals. LUIPS. 2023;40.
  11. Chetan S. Darne, Monika P. Maske, Pawan A. Gore, Jagdish R. Baheti, Formulation and Evaluation of Antifungal and Muscle Relaxant Herbal Bath Bomb Containing Cinnamon Oil, Int. J. in Pharm. Sci., 2023;1(9):355-360.
  12. Huh A.J., Kwon Y.J. Nanoantibiotics: A new paradigm for treating infectious diseases using nanomaterials in the antibiotics resistant era. J. Control. Release. 2011;156:128–145.
  13. Shaikh S., Nazam N., Rizvi SM D., Ahmad K., Baig M.H., Lee E.J., Choi I. Mechanistic insights into the antimicrobial actions of metallic nanoparticles and their implications for multidrug resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019;20:2468.
  14. Raut P.K., Kim S.H., Choi D.Y., Jeong G.S., Park P.H. Growth of breast cancer cells by leptin is mediated via activation of the inflammasome: Critical roles of estrogen receptor signaling and reactive oxygen species production. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2019;161:73–88.
  15. Nakamura Y., Arakawa H. Discovery of Mieap-regulated mitochondrial quality control as a new function of tumor suppressor p53. Cancer Sci. 2017;108:809–817.
  16. Kim S.H., Kim K.Y., Yu S.N., Park S.G., Yu H.S., Seo Y.K., Ahn S.C. Monensin induces PC-3 prostate cancer cell apoptosis via ROS production and Ca2+ homeostasis disruption. Anticancer Res. 2016;36:5835–5843.
  17. Panieri E., Santoro M.M. ROS homeostasis and metabolism: A dangerous liason in cancer cells. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:2253.
  18. Parham S., Nemati M., Sadir S., Bagherbaigi S., Wicaksono D.H., Nur H. In Situ Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles for Ag-NP/Cotton Nanocomposite and Its Bactericidal Effect. J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 2017;64:1286–1293.
  19. Parham S., Wicaksono D.H., Nur H. A proposed mechanism of action of textile/Al2O3–TiO2 bimetal oxide nanocomposite as an antimicrobial agent. J. Text. I. 2019;110:791–798.
  20. Parham S, Kharazi AZ, Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Nur H, Ismail AF, Sharif S, RamaKrishna S, Berto F. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiviral Properties of Herbal Materials. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Dec 21;9(12):1309.
  21. C. Valgas, S.M. De Souza, E.F.A. Smânia, et al. Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products Braz. J. Microbiol. 2007;38:369-380.
  22. Ramaiah Dr. Mariselvam & Aja Ranjitsingh & K. Kalirajan,. (2012). Anti-microbial Activity of Turmeric Natural Dye against Different Bacterial Strains. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2012;2:210-212.
  23. Patel Salim & Siddaiah M. Formulation and evaluation of effervescent tablets: a review. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2018;8:296-303.

Photo
Jayesh Maruti Shinde
Corresponding author

Department of Pharmacognosy KBHSS TRUST'S INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY

Photo
Nilam B. Khairnar
Co-author

Department of Pharmacognosy KBHSS TRUST'S INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY

Photo
Vivek N. Patil
Co-author

Department of Pharmacognosy KBHSS TRUST'S INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY

Photo
Aarti B. Sansare
Co-author

Department of Pharmacognosy KBHSS TRUST'S INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY

Photo
Shruti A. Pitrubhakta
Co-author

Department of Pharmacognosy KBHSS TRUST'S INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY

Photo
Devendra S. Pagar
Co-author

Department of Pharmacognosy KBHSS TRUST'S INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY

N. B. Khairnar, Jayesh Shinde, Shruti Pitrubhakta, Devendra Pagar, Aarti Sansare, Vivek Patil, Jayesh M. ShindeFormulation And Evaluation Of Herbal Medicated Bath Bomb, Int. J. of Pharm. Sci., 2024, Vol 2, Issue 4, 631-636. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10968570

More related articles
Advancements in Understanding the Neuromuscular Ju...
Arnab Roy, K. Rajeswar Dutt, Mahesh Kumar Yadav, Sudarshan Rawani...
Formulation And In Vitro Release Kinetic Of Aceclo...
Chethana R , Shiva Kumar S , Manoj R V , ...
Research advance in clinical evaluation of antihyp...
Vishavjeet Pisal, Tejaswini Kamble, Pritam Salokhe, Sachin Navale...
A Comprehensive Review On Synthetic Strategies Of Chalcones...
Bhargav A, Yashwanth R, Pavan Kumar C, ...
Molecular Docking: A Powerful Tool In Modern Drug Discovery And Its Approaches...
Shubhangi H. Bhowate, Dr. Dinesh R. Chaple, Dr. Alpana J. asnani, Pranita I. Rathod, Aishwarya V. Li...
Harnessing Artificial Intelligence In Healthcare: Advancements, Challenges, And ...
Joshi Ankur , Soni Priyanka , Malviya Sapna, Malviya Neelesh, Jain Neetesh, Koshta Ashok, Singh Anam...
Related Articles
Narrative Review: Multifunction Pharmaceutical Excipients in Tablet Formulation...
hussein k. alkufi, Ahmed H. Salman, Ali Saeed Owayez, ...
Formulation And Evaluation Of Herbal Anti-Aging Cream...
Prerana Sahu, Ayush Dubey, Divyansh Sahu, Tanuj Pandey, Gyanesh Sahu, Harish Sharma, ...
Advancements in Understanding the Neuromuscular Junction: Implications for Muscl...
Arnab Roy, K. Rajeswar Dutt, Mahesh Kumar Yadav, Sudarshan Rawani, Gangadhar Singh, Suraj Kumar, Ami...
More related articles
Advancements in Understanding the Neuromuscular Junction: Implications for Muscl...
Arnab Roy, K. Rajeswar Dutt, Mahesh Kumar Yadav, Sudarshan Rawani, Gangadhar Singh, Suraj Kumar, Ami...
Research advance in clinical evaluation of antihypertensive Drug...
Vishavjeet Pisal, Tejaswini Kamble, Pritam Salokhe, Sachin Navale, Nilesh Chougule, ...
Advancements in Understanding the Neuromuscular Junction: Implications for Muscl...
Arnab Roy, K. Rajeswar Dutt, Mahesh Kumar Yadav, Sudarshan Rawani, Gangadhar Singh, Suraj Kumar, Ami...
Research advance in clinical evaluation of antihypertensive Drug...
Vishavjeet Pisal, Tejaswini Kamble, Pritam Salokhe, Sachin Navale, Nilesh Chougule, ...