View Article

Abstract

Monkeypox is an unusual viral zoonosis resulting from a member of the genus orthopoxvirus. Monkeypox turned into to start with identified in 1958 as a viral eruption of captive primates.it is one of the many zoonotic viruses that belong to the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae own circle of relatives. Isolated from diverse animals the Poxviridae viruses are large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. The main hosts of Poxviruses are rodents, rabbits, and non-human primates, which could from time to time be transmitted to people facilitating the prevalence of human-to-human transmission The preliminary intracellular mature virus (IMV) is transported thru microtubules and is wrapped with Golgi-derived membrane .The IEV fuses to the mobileular floor membrane to shape mobileular-related enveloped virus, that is both extruded farfar from the mobileular via way of means of actin-tail polymerization or is launched to shape loose EEV. EEV may shape via way of means of direct budding of IMV. Typical signs of MPX encompass head- and frame aches, fever, chills, sore throat, malaise, fatigue, enlarged lymph nodes and a function pores and skin rash that develops into papules and vesicles which ultimately crust over and heal. All genes which are important to orthopoxviruses replication are gift withinside the MPXV USA 2022 MA001 stress. Interestingly, the MPXV USA 2022 MA001 stress has 4 putative ORFs >150bp which have now no longer been observed in different poxviruses before (ORF 16, ORF 26, ORF 146, ORF179). These 4 precise genes may also have particular organic features or make a contribution to the excessive transmission cappotential of the emergent MPXV.

Keywords

orthopox virus, MPXV, Tecovirimat .

Reference

  1. McCarthy M. Therapeutic strategies to address monkeypox. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 2022;20(10):1249-1252.
  2. Reynolds M, Doty J, McCollum A, Olson V, Nakazawa Y. Monkeypox re-emergence in Africa: a call to expand the concept and practice of One Health. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 2019;17(2):129-139.
  3. Nolen L, Tamfum J, Kabamba J, Likofata J, Katomba J, McCollum A et al. Introduction of Monkeypox into a Community and Household: Risk Factors and Zoonotic Reservoirs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2015;93(2):410-415.
  4. McCarthy M. Recent advances in the diagnosis monkeypox: implications for public health. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. 2022;22(7):739-744.
  5. Yinka-Ogunleye A, Aruna O, Dalhat M, Ogoina D, McCollum A, Disu Y et al. Outbreak of human monkeypox in Nigeria in 2017—18: a clinical and epidemiological report. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2019;19(8):872-879.
  6. Cho C, Wenner H. Monkeypox virus. Bacteriological Reviews. 1973;37(1):1-18.
  7. Weinstein R, Nalca A, Rimoin A, Bavari S, Whitehouse C. Reemergence of Monkeypox: Prevalence, Diagnostics, and Countermeasures. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2005;41(12):1765-1771.Taxonomy and classification
  8. Kaler J, Hussain A, Flores G, Kheiri S, Desrosiers D. Monkeypox: A Comprehensive Review of Transmission, Pathogenesis, and Manifestation. Cureus. 2022;.
  9. Ghazanfar, A. (2022) “Epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and management of Monkeypox virus: A clinical review article,” Cureus [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.28598.
  10. Benites-Zapata V, Ulloque-Badaracco J, Alarcon-Braga E, Hernandez-Bustamante E, Mosquera-Rojas M, Bonilla-Aldana D et al. Clinical features, hospitalisation and deaths associated with monkeypox: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2022;21(1).
  11. Xiang Y, White A. Monkeypox virus emerges from the shadow of its more infamous cousin: family biology matters. Emerging Microbes & Infections. 2022;11(1):1768-1777.
  12. Focosi D, Novazzi F, Baj A, Maggi F. Monkeypox: An international epidemic. Reviews in Medical Virology. 2022;.
  13. Adnan N, Haq Z, Malik A, Mehmood A, Ishaq U, Faraz M et al. Human monkeypox virus: An updated review. Medicine. 2022;101(35):e30406.
  14. Alakunle E, Moens U, Nchinda G, Okeke M. Monkeypox Virus in Nigeria: Infection Biology, Epidemiology, and Evolution. Viruses. 2020;12(11):1257
  15. Damon I. Status of human monkeypox: clinical disease, epidemiology and research. Vaccine. 2011;29:D54-D59.
  16. Kmiec D, Kirchhoff F. Monkeypox: A New Threat?. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022;23(14):7866.
  17. Parvin R, Ali A, Nagy A, Zhu Z, Zhao S, Paul A et al. Monkeypox virus: A comprehensive review of taxonomy, evolution, epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and control regiments so far. German Journal of Microbiology. 2022;2(2):1-15.
  18. Kandi, V. and Vadakedath, S. (2023) ‘Clinical trials and clinical research: A comprehensive review’, Cureus [Preprint]. doi:10.7759/cureus.35077.
  19. Farahat R, Ali I, AL- Ahdal T, Benmelouka A, Albakri K, El-Sakka A et al. Monkeypox and human transmission: Are we on the verge of another pandemic?. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2022;49:102387
  20. Alakunle, E. et al. (2020) ‘Monkeypox virus in Nigeria: Infection Biology, Epidemiology, and evolution’, Viruses, 12(11), p. 1257. doi:10.3390/v12111257.
  21. Ola, P. (2022) The origin of the mysterious multi-country monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries [Preprint]. doi:10.22541/au.165426607.74780750/v1.
  22. McFadden G. Poxvirus tropism. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2005;3(3):201-213.
  23. Hsiao J, Chung C, Chang W. Vaccinia Virus Envelope D8L Protein Binds to Cell Surface Chondroitin Sulfate and Mediates the Adsorption of Intracellular Mature Virions to Cells. Journalof Virology. 1999;73(10):8750-8761.
  24. Realegeno S, Puschnik A, Kumar A, Goldsmith C, Burgado J, Sambhara S et al. Monkeypox Virus Host Factor Screen Using Haploid Cells Identifies Essential Role of GARP Complex in Extracellular Virus Formation. Journal of Virology. 2017;91(11).
  25. Challberg M, Englund P. Purification and properties of the deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase induced by vaccinia virus. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1979;254(16):7812-7819.
  26. Kmiec D, Kirchhoff F. Monkeypox: A New Threat?. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022;23(14):7866.
  27. Parvin R, Ali A, Nagy A, Zhu Z, Zhao S, Paul A et al. Monkeypox virus: A comprehensive review of taxonomy, evolution, epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and control regiments so far. German Journal of Microbiology. 2022;2(2):1-15.
  28. Kumar N, Acharya A, Gendelman H, Byrareddy S. The 2022 outbreak and the pathobiology of the monkeypox virus. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2022;131:102855.
  29. Schnierle B. Monkeypox Goes North: Ongoing Worldwide Monkeypox Infections in Humans. Viruses. 2022;14(9):1874.
  30. Chadha J, Khullar L, Gulati P, Chhibber S, Harjai K. Insights into the monkeypox virus: Making of another pandemic within the pandemic?. Environmental Microbiology. 2022;.
  31. Kumar N, Acharya A, Gendelman H, Byrareddy S. The 2022 outbreak and the pathobiology of the monkeypox virus. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2022;131:102855.
  32. Kmiec D, Kirchhoff F. Monkeypox: A New Threat?. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022;23(14):7866.
  33. Xiang Y, White A. Monkeypox virus emerges from the shadow of its more infamous cousin: family biology matters. Emerging Microbes & Infections. 2022;11(1):1768-1777.
  34. Di Giulio D, Eckburg P. Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2004;4(1):15-25.
  35. Lum F, Torres-Ruesta A, Tay M, Lin R, Lye D, Rénia L et al. Monkeypox: disease epidemiology, host immunity and clinical interventions. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2022;22(10):597-613.
  36. Chadha J, Khullar L, Gulati P, Chhibber S, Harjai K. Insights into the monkeypox virus: Making of another pandemic within the pandemic?. Environmental Microbiology. 2022;.
  37. McCollum A, Damon I. Human Monkeypox. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2013;58(2):260-267.
  38. Cheema A, Ogedegbe O, Munir M, Alugba G, Ojo T. Monkeypox: A Review of Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Cureus. 2022;.
  39. Titanji B, Tegomoh B, Nematollahi S, Konomos M, Kulkarni P. Monkeypox: A Contemporary Review for Healthcare Professionals. Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2022;9(7).
  40. Weinstein R, Nalca A, Rimoin A, Bavari S, Whitehouse C. Reemergence of Monkeypox: Prevalence, Diagnostics, and Countermeasures. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2005;41(12):1765-1771.
  41. Kaler J, Hussain A, Flores G, Kheiri S, Desrosiers D. Monkeypox: A Comprehensive Review of Transmission, Pathogenesis, and Manifestation. Cureus. 2022;.
  42. Lum F, Torres-Ruesta A, Tay M, Lin R, Lye D, Rénia L et al. Monkeypox: disease epidemiology, host immunity and clinical interventions. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2022;22(10):597-613.
  43. Titanji B, Tegomoh B, Nematollahi S, Konomos M, Kulkarni P. Monkeypox: A Contemporary Review for Healthcare Professionals. Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2022;9(7).
  44. See K. Vaccination for Monkeypox Virus Infection in Humans: A Review of Key Considerations. Vaccines. 2022;10(8):1342.
  45. Di Giulio D, Eckburg P. Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2004;4(1):15-25.
  46. Reynolds M, McCollum A, Nguete B, Shongo Lushima R, Petersen B. Improving the Care and Treatment of Monkeypox Patients in Low-Resource Settings: Applying Evidence from Contemporary Biomedical and Smallpox Biodefense Research. Viruses. 2017;9(12):380.
  47. Adler, H. and Taggart, R. (2022) ‘Monkeypox exposure during pregnancy: What does UK Public Health Guidance Advise?’, The Lancet, 400(10362), p. 1509. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(22)01794-9.
  48. Rizk J, Lippi G, Henry B, Forthal D, Rizk Y. Prevention and Treatment of Monkeypox. Drugs. 2022;82(9):957-963
  49. Russo A, Grosenbach D, Chinsangaram J, Honeychurch K, Long P, Lovejoy C et al. An overview of tecovirimat for smallpox treatment and expanded anti-orthopoxvirus applications. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 2020;19(3):331-344.
  50. Chittick G, Morrison M, Brundage T, Nichols W. Short-term clinical safety profile of brincidofovir: A favorable benefit—risk proposition in the treatment of smallpox. Antiviral Research. 2017;143:269-277.
  51. Rice A, Adams M, Lampert B, Foster S, Lanier R, Robertson A et al. Efficacy of CMX001 as a Prophylactic and Presymptomatic Antiviral Agent in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans. Viruses. 2015;3(2):63-82.
  52. Smee D. Progress in the Discovery of Compounds Inhibiting Orthopoxviruses in Animal Models. Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy. 2008;19(3):115-124

Photo
Pratiksha A. Udawant
Corresponding author

Blue Cross laboratories Pvt ltd ambad nasik

Photo
Sabafarin Shaikh
Co-author

Photo
Khare Komal
Co-author

Photo
Mayur S. Bhosle
Co-author

Photo
Sushmita Chavan
Co-author

Sabafarin Shaikh, Pratiksha Udawant, Khare Komal, Mayur S. Bhosle, Sushmita Chavan, Review Of Monkeypox Virus :Symptoms ,Pathogenesis ,Diagnosis And Treatment, Int. J. of Pharm. Sci., 2024, Vol 2, Issue 1, 298-310. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10517292

More related articles
Rosmarinus Officinalis L. : Used for the Treatment...
RUTUJA KHAIRNAR, Shubdha B. Dude, Rutuja N. Pinjarkar , Rutuja B...
A Review On Modern Approaches Towards Anticoagulan...
Anurag Sanghave, Anjali Mali, Gajanan Sanap, ...
Review On Self Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery Sy...
Jadhav Bharat V., Tattu Arpita B., Jadhav Supriya B., Bade urmila...
Review Article On Organogels Methodology And Types Of Organogelators...
Rushikesh Khemnar, Sonia Singh, Nikhil Sutar, Pallavi Kaple, Avadhut Kulkarni, vitthal Dherange, Pan...
The Impact Of Prone Position On Mechanically Ventilated Patients With COVID-19 A...
Abdulhakeem J Alotaibi, Abdulghafoor Alsomali, Abdulrahman Majrashi, Rana M Alotaibi, Shouq Saleh Al...
Related Articles
Recent Advance Study On Antifungal Drug Evaluation Method...
Sarthak Kothali, Sourabh Patil, Shreyash Koli, Suvarna Deshmukh, Tejas Kapase, Sachin Navale, Nilesh...
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF BATH BOMB...
Manisha. U. Mishra, Vijaya. K. Parihar, Vedika. A. Kumarwar, Urwashi. C. Baghele, Vaishnavi. D. Th...
Sources And Applications Of Chitin: A Review...
Shanmugavadivu Muthusamy, Niveda Kannappan, Dhanalakshmi Karuppasamy, ...
An Interventional Study On Hemodialysis Patient And Impact Of Patient Counseling...
Basheera. V, Rahna Rasheed, Remeeza Jabbar, Rinsa. A, ...
Rosmarinus Officinalis L. : Used for the Treatment of Hair Loss ...
RUTUJA KHAIRNAR, Shubdha B. Dude, Rutuja N. Pinjarkar , Rutuja B. Aher , ...
More related articles
Rosmarinus Officinalis L. : Used for the Treatment of Hair Loss ...
RUTUJA KHAIRNAR, Shubdha B. Dude, Rutuja N. Pinjarkar , Rutuja B. Aher , ...
Review On Self Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery System SMEDDS...
Jadhav Bharat V., Tattu Arpita B., Jadhav Supriya B., Bade urmila R., ...
Rosmarinus Officinalis L. : Used for the Treatment of Hair Loss ...
RUTUJA KHAIRNAR, Shubdha B. Dude, Rutuja N. Pinjarkar , Rutuja B. Aher , ...
Review On Self Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery System SMEDDS...
Jadhav Bharat V., Tattu Arpita B., Jadhav Supriya B., Bade urmila R., ...