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Abstract

Benzimidazole, a bicyclic compound formed by the fusion of benzene and imidazole rings, is recognized for its profound biological activity and significant impact on medicinal chemistry. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of benzimidazole derivatives, highlighting their key pharmacological activities, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antimicrobial, antiulcer, antioxidant, anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, anticancer, antiviral, antiarrhythmic, anticonvulsant, antiprotozoal, hypotensive, and neuroprotective effects. The robust affinity of benzimidazoles for a diverse array of enzymes and protein receptors underscores their status as privileged sub-structures in pharmacological design.. The integration of the benzimidazole nucleus in drug development continues to play a crucial role in contemporary therapeutic research, offering versatile and effective treatments for a wide range of diseases.

Keywords

Benzimidazole derivatives, Pharmacological activities, Medicinal chemistry Neuroprotective agents, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Therapeutic potential

Introduction

Benzimidazole stands as a bicyclic compound distinguished by an imidazole ring housing two nitrogen atoms positioned nonadjacently and fused to a benzene ring. It occupies a pivotal role within heterocyclic compounds, celebrated for its profound biological activity and significant impact on medicinal chemistry.[1] The robust affinity of benzimidazoles for a diverse array of enzymes and protein receptors has elevated them to the status of privileged 'sub-structures' in the realm of pharmacological design. The integration of the benzimidazole nucleus serves as a cornerstone in the strategic development of antimicrobial drugs, underscoring its pivotal role in contemporary therapeutic research. This heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, benzimidazole, epitomizes a vital pharmacophore in medicinal chemistry. Its bicyclic structure arises from the fusion of benzene and imidazole rings, rendering it a favored moiety in modern pharmacological investigations due to its multifaceted pharmacological attributes.[1,2]


       
            Picture12.png
       

    Figure 1.  H Benzimidazole


       
            J.jpg
       

    Figure 2. Pharmacological Actions of Benzimidazole[3]


The benzimidazole nucleus, entrenched as a well-established pharmacophore in medicinal chemistry, exhibits remarkable versatility as a heterocyclic entity endowed with a broad spectrum of biological activities.


       
            Picture2.png
       

    Figure 3.some benzimadazoles containing medicinal preparation[4]


 Benzimidazole derivatives function as structural isosteres of endogenous nucleotides, thereby enhancing their efficacy in interacting with a diverse array of biological targets.[2] In this study, our objective is to comprehensively collate and analyze the contemporary biological properties of the benzimidazole nucleus, illuminating its pivotal roles and applications in cutting-edge biomedical research endeavors.

KEY PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity

Leonardo et al conducted studies on the synthesis and anti-inflammatory properties of phenyl benzimidazole (4) . Compounds 4a, 4b, 4c, and 4d were scrutinized for their efficacy in mitigating inflammation, revealing inhibition percentages of 22.1%, 52.2%, 54.6%, and 49.6%, respectively, at 50 mg/kg doses. Notably, compound 4c demonstrated the highest potency with 54.6% inhibition of edema at the tested dosage.[5]  Saha et al conducted a study  on the synthesis and biological assessment of various disubstituted benzimidazole derivatives(5) The compounds, labeled as 5a, 5b, 5c, and 5d, were created by condensing o-phenylenediamine with aromatic aldehydes, using an ammonium salt catalyst. In vivo study was conducted in Swiss mice, compounds 5c, 5a, and 5b at a dose of 25 mg/kg reduced the number of writhes by 88.81%, 69.40%, and 64.93%, respectively (P<0>


       
            Picture3.png
       

    Figure 4.phenyl benzimidazole


       
            Picture4.png
       

    Figure 5. 1,2 disubstituted benzimidazole derivative


Diuretic Activity

Srinivasan et al reported the synthesis of 3-(2-methyl-1,2-dihydropyrimido(1,2-c)benzimidazole-1-thionyl)-6,8-dibromo-2-substituted-3H-quinazolin-4-one (6), highlighting moderate diuretic effects .[7]


       
            Picture5.png
       

    Figure 6 .3-(2-methyl-1,2-dihydropyrimido(1,2-c)benzimidazole-1-thionyl)-6,8-dibromo-2-substituted-3H-quinazolin-4-one


Antimicrobial Activity

In their research, Leonardo et al also synthesized derivatives of 1-(substituted-methyl)-2-(substituted-phenyl)benzimidazole (7) and assessed their antimicrobial potential against S. aureus, B. pumilus, and P. aeruginosa. Compound 3a displayed significant antibacterial activity with a MIC of 6.25 at 100 ?M/mL[5] Meanwhile, Deshmukh et al synthesized 2,3,4-trisubstituted-1,2-dihydropyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives (8), revealing promising fungicidal activity against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum.[8]


       
            Picture6.png
       

    Figure 7. 1-(substituted-methyl)-2-(substituted-phenyl)benzimidazole


       
            Picture7.png
       

    Figure 8. 2,3,4-trisubstituted-1,2-dihydropyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives


Antiulcer Activity

Bariwal et al synthesized novel pyrimidyl-thio-methylbenzimidazole (9) evaluating their antiulcer properties. Notably, the compound is responsible in  reducing ulcer formation at dose of 10  mg/kg, comparable to Omeprazole.[9]


       
            Picture8.jpg
       

    Figure 9 .pyrimidyl-thio-methylbenzimidazole


Antioxidant Activity

Alagoz et al synthesized 6-fluoro-5-substituted benzimidazole derivatives(10), incorporating indole and 1,4,4,4-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro naphthalene groups at the 2-position, and evaluated them for antioxidant potential. Compound 10e exhibited potent super scavenging activity against superoxide anions at a concentration of 10-3 M.[10]


       
            Picture9.png
       

    Figure 10. 6-fluoro-5-substituted benzimidazole derivatives


Anti-Asthmatic Activity

Kumar et al reported the synthesis of novel functionalized benzimidazole derivatives (11) and evaluated their potential anti-asthmatic effects against PDE-IV. Compounds 11a, 11b, and 11c demonstrated inhibitory activities of 3.40%, 13.52%, and 8.91%, respectively, at 1 ?M doses, with compound 11b showing promising anti-asthmatic activity.[11]


       
            Picture10.png
       

    Figure 11. benzimidazole derivatives 11a, 11b, and 11c


Anti-Diabetic Activity

Kumar et al also synthesized a series of novel benzimidazole derivatives (12) and tested their anti-diabetic activities against DPP-IV and PTP-IB. Compounds 12a and 12b exhibited inhibitory activities of 1.64% and 2.42%, respectively, against PTP-IB at 30 ?M doses, while compound 12c demonstrated 3% inhibition against DPP-IV at 0.3 ?M doses.[11]

Anti Cancer activity

Kumar et al. synthesized carbomethoxy-substituted benzimidazole derivatives of the natural product UK-1  from a Streptomyces strain. They assessed the cytotoxicity of these compounds using Alamar Blue assays on MCF-7, HL-60, HT-29, and PC-3 cell lines. The compound methyl 2-[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazol-4-yl]-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxylate (13) showed cytotoxic effects with IC50 values ranging from 7.0 to 100 µM .[12]  Vedula et al .synthesized new styryl sulfones were tested for their anticancer activity against various cancer cell lines, including those causing breast, CNS, colon, lung, melanoma, ovarian, prostate, and renal cancers. The compound 6-chloro-1H-(benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) methyl [(E)-2-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-ethenyl] sulphone ( 14) demonstrated a 51% reduction in tumor activity. growth inhibition in mice implanted with HT-29 human carcinoma at 400 mg/kg orally .[13]


       
            Picture11.png
       

    Figure 12. methyl 2-[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazol-4-yl]-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxylate


       
            Picture12.png
       

   Figure 13. 6-chloro-1H-(benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) methyl [(E)-2-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-ethenyl] sulphone


Anti viral Activity

Starcevic et al synthesized heterocyclic benzimidazole derivatives with amidino groups at the C-5 position and various heterocyclic groups (pyridine, N-methyl pyrrole, or imidazole) at the C-2 position. They evaluated these compounds for antiviral activity against coxsackieviruses and echoviruses. Notably, compounds 15 (2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxamidine hydrochloride) and 16 (n-isopropyl-2-pyridin-2-yl-1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxamidine) showed strong activity against adenovirus, making them promising leads for adenoviral replication inhibition.[14]


       
            Picture13.png
       

    Figure 14. 2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxamidine hydrochloride


       
            Picture14.png
       

    Figure 15. n-isopropyl-2-pyridin-2-yl-1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxamidine


Antiarrhythmic Activity

Anisimova et al synthesized 9-dialkylaminoethyl-2-oxy(dioxy)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives (17), assessing their antiarrhythmic properties. Compounds 17a, 17b, and 17c demonstrated antiarrhythmic activity, with compound 17 a showing efficacy close to the reference drug Quinidine in terms of minimum effective concentration (MIC mole/L).[15]


       
            Picture15.png
       

    Figure 16. 9-dialkylaminoethyl-2-oxy(dioxy)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives


Anticonvulsant Activity

Chimrri et al reported on the synthesis of novel 1-H pyrrolo(1,2-a)benzimidazole-1-one derivatives (18), evaluating their anticonvulsant effects. Compounds 18a, 18b, and 18c exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by the maximal electroshock method at 25 mg/kg orally, with compound 18a demonstrating the highest efficacy among them.[16]


       
            Picture16.png
       

    Figure 17. 1-H pyrrolo(1,2-a)benzimidazole-1-one derivatives


Antiprotozoal Activity

Andrzejewska et al synthesized two series of S-substituted 4,6-dihalogeno-2-mercapto-1H-benzimidazoles (19) and evaluated their in vitro antiprotozoal activity against G. intestinalis and T. vaginalis, using albendazole and metronidazole as reference standards.Among them compounds 19a, 19b and 19c were found to be most potent and comparable to standard drugs.[17]


       
            Picture17.png
       

    Figure 18. S-substituted 4,6-dihalogeno-2-mercapto-1H-benzimidazoles


Vazquez et al  synthesized 2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (20) and evaluated the anti-protozoal activity. These analogues were tested in vitro against the protozoa Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, compared to Albendazole and Metronidazole, and showed IC50 values of less than 1 ?M.[18


       
            Picture18.png
       

    Figure 19. 2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole


Hypotensive Activity

Anisimova et al reported the synthesis of 9-dialkylaminomethyl-2-oxy(dioxy)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole (21). Compounds 21a, 21b, and 21c exhibited hypotensive activity with ED50 values of 2.8 mg/kg, 0.8 mg/kg, and 0.13 mg/kg, respectively, and LD50 values of 121.0 mg/kg, 182 mg/kg, and 143 mg/kg, respectively. The LD50/ED50 ratios were 43.2, 227.5, and 1100. Among these, compound 21c was the most active, surpassing the reference drugs Dibazole and Apressin in terms of hypotensive effect (ED50: 22.1, 4.0) .[19


       
            Picture19.png
       

    Figure 20. 9-dialkylaminomethyl-2-oxy(dioxy)phenylimidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole


Neuroprotective Activity

 Muhammad Imran et al synthesized and characterized eight novel benzimidazole acetamide derivatives (FP1, FP2, FP5?FP10) to explore their neuroprotective effects against ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in a rat model. Pretreatment with the new benzimidazole acetamide derivatives (FP1, FP7, and FP8) significantly improved ethanol-induced memory deficits, reduced oxidative stress, and lowered proinflammatory markers (TNF-?, NF-?B, IL-6, NLRP3) in the cortex.. These findings suggest that benzimidazole acetamide derivatives (FP1, FP7, and FP8) hold promise as neuroprotective agents against ethanol-induced neurodegeneration, likely by disrupting the neuroinflammatory-oxidative stress cycle.[20]



       
            Screenshot 2024-07-05 094007.png
       

    

Figure 21.Benzimidazole acetamide derivatives


       
            Picture20.png
       

    


CONCLUSION

The benzimidazole nucleus proves to be a versatile and powerful pharmacophore with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Its integration into various derivatives underscores its importance in the design of novel therapeutic agents. This comprehensive review of benzimidazole derivatives and their pharmacological properties highlights their critical role in advancing medicinal chemistry and underscores their potential in developing effective treatments for a wide range of diseases.

 

REFERENCES

  1. Devender Pathaka, Nadeem Siddiquib, Bhanupriya Bhrigua, Waquar Ahsanb, M. Shamsher Alamb. Benzimidazoles: A New Profile of Biological Activities. 2010 Jan 1;2(2):27–34.
  2. Narasimhan B, Sharma D, Kumar P. Benzimidazole: a medicinally important heterocyclic moiety. 2012 Mar 1;21(3):269–83.
  3. Brishty SR, Hossain MdJ, Khandaker MU, Faruque MRI, Osman H, Rahman SMA. A Comprehensive Account on Recent Progress in Pharmacological Activities of Benzimidazole Derivatives. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2021 Nov 3;12.
  4. Tahlan S, Kumar S, Narasimhan B. Pharmacological significance of heterocyclic 1 H-benzimidazole scaffolds: a review. BMC chemistry. 2019 Dec;13:1-21.
  5. Leonard JT, Jeyaseeli L, Rajesh OS, Murugesh K, Sivakumar R, Gunasekaran V. Synthesis, antiinflammatory and antibacterial activities of 4-substituted phenyl benzimidazoles. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2006;18(2):1104-8.
  6. SAHA P, BRISHTY SR, RAHMAN SMA. Synthesis and Evaluation of Disubstituted Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potential Analgesic and Antidiarrheal Agents. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;82(2)
  7. Srinivasan N, Balaji A, Nagarajan G, Suthakaran R, Kumar Y, Jagadesh D. Synthesis and Biological Screening of Some New 3 [2-Methyl-1, 2-dihydropyrimido [1, 2c] benzimidazole-1-thionyl]-6, 8-dibromo-2-substituted-3H-quinazolin-4-one. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2008 Aug 20;20(6):4934.
  8. MB Deshmukh; AW Suryavanshi; SA Deshmukh; SS Jagtap. Ind. J. Chem., 2009, 86B, 302.
  9. JB Bariwal; AK Shah; MK Kathiravan; RS Somani; JR Jagtap; KS Jain. Ind. J. Pharm. Ed.
  10. Res., 2008, 42, 225.
  11. Alagoz ZA, Kus C, Çoban T. Synthesis and antioxidant properties of novel tetrahydro-naphthalene fragments. J Enzym Inhib Med Chem. 2004;20:325.
  12. Neelamma M, Kumar BB, Rao PV. Synthesis and Structural Studies on Transition Metal Complexes Derived from 1-(2-Thienyl)-1-ethanole-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl-hydrazone. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2006 Jul 1;18(4):3060.
  13. Kumar D, Jacob MR, Reynolds MB, Kerwin SM. Synthesis and evaluation of anticancer benzoxazoles and benzimidazoles related to UK-1. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2002 Dec 1;10(12):3997-4004.
  14. Vedula MS, Pulipaka AB, Venna C, Chintakunta VK, Jennepalli S, Kattuboina VA, Vallakati RK, Basetti V, Akella V, Rajgopal S, Reka AK. New styryl sulfones as anticancer agents. European journal of medicinal chemistry. 2003 Sep 1;38(9):811-24.
  15. Star?evi? K, Kralj M, Ester K, Sabol I, Grce M, Paveli? K, Karminski-Zamola G. Synthesis, antiviral and antitumor activity of 2-substituted-5-amidino-benzimidazoles. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2007 Jul 1;15(13):4419-26.
  16. Guo XZ, Shi L, Wang R, Liu XX, Li BG, Lu XX. Synthesis and biological activities of novel nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists based on benzimidazole derivatives bearing a heterocyclic ring. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2008 Dec 15;16(24):10301-10.
  17. Be Andrzejewskaa M, Yepez-Mulia L, Tapia A, Cedillo-Rivera R, Laudy AE, Andrzejewska M, Yepez-Mulia L, Tapia A, Cedillo-Rivera R, Laudy AE, Staro?ciak BJ, Kazimierczuk Z. Synthesis, and antiprotozoal and antibacterial activities of S-substituted 4, 6-dibromo-and 4, 6-dichloro-2-mercaptobenzimidazoles. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2004 Feb 1;21(2-3):323-9.
  18. Navarrete-Vázquez G, de Monserrat Rojano-Vilchis M, Yépez-Mulia L, Meléndez V, Gerena L, Hernández-Campos A, Castillo R, Hernández-Luis F. Synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of some 2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole bioisosteres. European journal of medicinal chemistry. 2006 Jan 1;41(1):135-41.
  19. Guo XZ, Shi L, Wang R, Liu XX, Li BG, Lu XX. Synthesis and biological activities of novel nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists based on benzimidazole derivatives bearing a heterocyclic ring. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2008 Dec 15;16(24):10301-10.
  20. Imran M, Shah FA, Nadeem H, Zeb A, Faheem M, Naz S, et al. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potential Neuroprotective Agents in an Ethanol-Induced Rodent Model. ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 2021 Jan 12;12(3):489–505.

Reference

  1. Devender Pathaka, Nadeem Siddiquib, Bhanupriya Bhrigua, Waquar Ahsanb, M. Shamsher Alamb. Benzimidazoles: A New Profile of Biological Activities. 2010 Jan 1;2(2):27–34.
  2. Narasimhan B, Sharma D, Kumar P. Benzimidazole: a medicinally important heterocyclic moiety. 2012 Mar 1;21(3):269–83.
  3. Brishty SR, Hossain MdJ, Khandaker MU, Faruque MRI, Osman H, Rahman SMA. A Comprehensive Account on Recent Progress in Pharmacological Activities of Benzimidazole Derivatives. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2021 Nov 3;12.
  4. Tahlan S, Kumar S, Narasimhan B. Pharmacological significance of heterocyclic 1 H-benzimidazole scaffolds: a review. BMC chemistry. 2019 Dec;13:1-21.
  5. Leonard JT, Jeyaseeli L, Rajesh OS, Murugesh K, Sivakumar R, Gunasekaran V. Synthesis, antiinflammatory and antibacterial activities of 4-substituted phenyl benzimidazoles. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2006;18(2):1104-8.
  6. SAHA P, BRISHTY SR, RAHMAN SMA. Synthesis and Evaluation of Disubstituted Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potential Analgesic and Antidiarrheal Agents. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;82(2)
  7. Srinivasan N, Balaji A, Nagarajan G, Suthakaran R, Kumar Y, Jagadesh D. Synthesis and Biological Screening of Some New 3 [2-Methyl-1, 2-dihydropyrimido [1, 2c] benzimidazole-1-thionyl]-6, 8-dibromo-2-substituted-3H-quinazolin-4-one. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2008 Aug 20;20(6):4934.
  8. MB Deshmukh; AW Suryavanshi; SA Deshmukh; SS Jagtap. Ind. J. Chem., 2009, 86B, 302.
  9. JB Bariwal; AK Shah; MK Kathiravan; RS Somani; JR Jagtap; KS Jain. Ind. J. Pharm. Ed.
  10. Res., 2008, 42, 225.
  11. Alagoz ZA, Kus C, Çoban T. Synthesis and antioxidant properties of novel tetrahydro-naphthalene fragments. J Enzym Inhib Med Chem. 2004;20:325.
  12. Neelamma M, Kumar BB, Rao PV. Synthesis and Structural Studies on Transition Metal Complexes Derived from 1-(2-Thienyl)-1-ethanole-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl-hydrazone. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2006 Jul 1;18(4):3060.
  13. Kumar D, Jacob MR, Reynolds MB, Kerwin SM. Synthesis and evaluation of anticancer benzoxazoles and benzimidazoles related to UK-1. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2002 Dec 1;10(12):3997-4004.
  14. Vedula MS, Pulipaka AB, Venna C, Chintakunta VK, Jennepalli S, Kattuboina VA, Vallakati RK, Basetti V, Akella V, Rajgopal S, Reka AK. New styryl sulfones as anticancer agents. European journal of medicinal chemistry. 2003 Sep 1;38(9):811-24.
  15. Star?evi? K, Kralj M, Ester K, Sabol I, Grce M, Paveli? K, Karminski-Zamola G. Synthesis, antiviral and antitumor activity of 2-substituted-5-amidino-benzimidazoles. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2007 Jul 1;15(13):4419-26.
  16. Guo XZ, Shi L, Wang R, Liu XX, Li BG, Lu XX. Synthesis and biological activities of novel nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists based on benzimidazole derivatives bearing a heterocyclic ring. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2008 Dec 15;16(24):10301-10.
  17. Be Andrzejewskaa M, Yepez-Mulia L, Tapia A, Cedillo-Rivera R, Laudy AE, Andrzejewska M, Yepez-Mulia L, Tapia A, Cedillo-Rivera R, Laudy AE, Staro?ciak BJ, Kazimierczuk Z. Synthesis, and antiprotozoal and antibacterial activities of S-substituted 4, 6-dibromo-and 4, 6-dichloro-2-mercaptobenzimidazoles. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2004 Feb 1;21(2-3):323-9.
  18. Navarrete-Vázquez G, de Monserrat Rojano-Vilchis M, Yépez-Mulia L, Meléndez V, Gerena L, Hernández-Campos A, Castillo R, Hernández-Luis F. Synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of some 2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole bioisosteres. European journal of medicinal chemistry. 2006 Jan 1;41(1):135-41.
  19. Guo XZ, Shi L, Wang R, Liu XX, Li BG, Lu XX. Synthesis and biological activities of novel nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists based on benzimidazole derivatives bearing a heterocyclic ring. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2008 Dec 15;16(24):10301-10.
  20. Imran M, Shah FA, Nadeem H, Zeb A, Faheem M, Naz S, et al. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potential Neuroprotective Agents in an Ethanol-Induced Rodent Model. ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 2021 Jan 12;12(3):489–505.

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Rubayyath.k
Corresponding author

student ,Department of pharmaceutical chemistry ,Al Shifa College of Pharmacy,kizhattur,Perinthelmanna

Photo
Shafnaz Abdul Rahman
Co-author

student ,Department of pharmaceutical chemistry ,Al Shifa College of Pharmacy,kizhattur,Perinthelmanna

Photo
Rahila
Co-author

student ,Department of pharmaceutical chemistry ,Al Shifa College of Pharmacy,kizhattur,Perinthelmanna

Photo
Digi Davis C
Co-author

student ,Department of pharmaceutical chemistry ,Al Shifa College of Pharmacy,kizhattur,Perinthelmanna

Photo
Neeshma k
Co-author

student ,Department of pharmaceutical chemistry ,Al Shifa College of Pharmacy,kizhattur,Perinthelmanna

Photo
Ramsiya k
Co-author

student ,Department of pharmaceutical chemistry ,Al Shifa College of Pharmacy,kizhattur,Perinthelmanna

Photo
Razana Binth Yoosuf P
Co-author

student ,Department of pharmaceutical chemistry ,Al Shifa College of Pharmacy,kizhattur,Perinthelmanna

Rubayyath K. , Shafnaz Abdul Rahman ,Rahila , Digi Davis C. , Neeshma K. , Ramsiya K. , Razana Binth Yoosef P., Benzimidazole: A Versatile Pharmacophore For Diverse Therapeutic Applications, Int. J. of Pharm. Sci., 2024, Vol 2, Issue 7, 328-336. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.12661707

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