View Article

Abstract

Around the world, conjunctivitis is a prevalent ailment seen in ophthalmology clinics. Alarming indicators of more serious intraocular disorders, such as significant pain, impaired vision, and painful pupillary reaction, must be taken into consideration when managing suspected cases of conjunctivitis. Patients with unusual results and a chronic course should also have a comprehensive physical examination as well as a complete medical and ophthalmic history. Conjunctival involvement in a systemic disease may be detected by concurrent physical exam findings and pertinent history. Conjunctivitis caused by viruses is still the most common cause of the condition overall. Although it is less common, bacterial conjunctivitis is the second most common cause of infectious conjunctivitis. About 50% of people experience allergic conjunctivitis, which is characterized by itching, mucoid discharge, chemosis, and edema of the eyelids. When patients with conjunctival irritation and discharge use preservative-containing eye drops over an extended period of time, toxic conjunctivitis is likely the underlying cause. Timely diagnosis, adequate classification of the various etiologist, and suitable treatment are all important components of effective conjunctivitis care.

Keywords

Bacterial, viral, toxic, allergic, conjunctivitis, COVID-19, and coronavirus

Reference

  1. Shekhawat NS, Shtein RM, Blachley TS, Stein JD. Antibiotic prescription fills for acute conjunctivitis among enrollees in a large United States managed care network. Ophthalmology 2017;124:1099–1107.
  2. Bedside diagnosis of the "Red Eye": a systematic review by Narayana S and McGee S. 2015;128:1220–1224.e1221. Am J Med.
  3. Woodland RM, Darougar S, Thaker U, Cornell L,  Siddique M, Wania J, et al. Causes of conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis in Karachi, Pakistan. Trans Royal Soc Trop Med Hygiene 1992;86:317–320.
  4. Everitt H, Little P. How do GPs diagnose and manage acute infective conjunctivitis? A GP survey. Fam Pract 2002;19:658–660.
  5. Friedlaender MH. Ocular allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Cli Immunol 2011;11:477–48
  6. Bielory L, Frohman LP. Allergic and immunologic disorder of the eye. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;89:1–15.
  7. Rietveld RP, van Weert HC, ter Riet G, Bindels PJ. Diagnostic impact of signs and symptoms in acute infectious conjunctivitis: systematic literature search. BM 2003;327:78
  8. Drew RJ, Cole TS, Newman W. How to use… eye swabs Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2015;100:155–161
  9. Wong VW, Lai TY, Chi SC, Lam DS. Pediatric ocular surface infections: a 5-year review of demographics, clinical features, risk factors, microbiological results, and treatment. Cornea 2011;30:995–1002.
  10. Kam KY, Ong HS, Bunce C, Ogunbowale L, Verma S. Sensitivity and specificity of the Adeno Plus point-of-care system in detecting adenovirus in conjunctivitis patient at an ophthalmic emergency department: a diagnost accuracy study. Br J Ophthalmol 2015;99:1186–1189
  11. Newman H, Gooding C. Viral ocular manifestations: a broad overview. Rev Med Virol 2013;23:281–294.
  12. Singh G, Zhou X, Lee JY, Yousuf MA, Ramke M, Ismail AM, et al. Recombination of the epsilon determinant and corneal tropism: human adenovirus species D types 15, 29, 56, and 69. Virology 2015;485:452–459,
  13. Harley D, Harrower B, Lyon M, Dick A. A primary school outbreak of pharyngoconjunctival fever caused by adenovirus type 3. Comm Dis Intell 2001;25:9–12
  14. Jackson WB, Low DE, Dattani D, Whitsitt PF, Leede MacDougall R. Treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis: 1% fusidic acid viscous drops vs. 0.3% tobramycin drops. Can J Ophthalmol 2002;37:228–237; discussion 237.
  15. Bremond-Gignac D, Mariani-Kurkdjian P, Beresniak A, El Fekih L, Bhagat Y, Pouliquen P, et al. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin 1.5% eye drops for purulent bacterial conjunctivitis in pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2010;29:222–226.
  16. Puri LR, Shrestha GB, Shah DN, Chaudhary M, Thakur A. Ocular manifestations in herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Nepal J Ophthalmol 2011;3:165–171.
  17. Zhang L, Zhao N, Huang X, Jin X, Geng X, Chan TC, et al. Molecular epidemiology of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by coxsackie a type 24 variant in China, 2004-2014. Sci Rep 2017;7:45202
  18. Serin S, Bozkurt Oflaz A, Karabagli P, Gedik S, Bozkurt B. Eyelid molluscum contagiosum lesions in two patients with unilateral chronic conjunctivitis. Turk J Ophthalmol  2017;47:226–230.
  19. Leibowitz HM. Antibacterial effectiveness of ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution in the treatment of bacteria  conjunctivitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1991;112:29s–33s.
  20. Hovding G. Acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Acta Ophthalmol 2008;86:5–17
  21. Owen CG, Shah A, Henshaw K, Smeeth L, Sheikh A. Topical treatments for seasonal allergic conjunctivitis: systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy and effectiveness. Br J Gen Pract 2004;54:451–456.
  22. Maziak W, Behrens T, Brasky TM, Duhme H, Rzehak P Weiland SK, et al. Are asthma and allergies in children and adolescents increasing? Results from ISAAC phase I and phase III surveys in Munster, Germany. Allergy 2003;58:572–579.

Photo
Aarti S. Baware
Corresponding author

Department of pharmacology, LBYP college of pharmacy, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

Photo
D. K. Vir
Co-author

Department of pharmacology, LBYP college of pharmacy, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

Photo
Gajanan Sanap
Co-author

Department of pharmacology, LBYP college of pharmacy, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

Aarti S. Baware*, D. K. Vir, Gajanan Sanap, Eye Conjunctivitis, Int. J. in Pharm. Sci., 2023, Vol 1, Issue 12,913-919. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10441475

More related articles
Henna Dyeing On Cotton Fabric With Different Natur...
Vibha S. Bhagat, Afsana Mondal, Mahedaraksha Junaid Ahmed, Juliet...
Alzheimer's Disease: A Review...
Poonam Manikrao Dapke , Ms.Sonali kalam , Dr. Gajanan Sanap, ...
Pharmaceutical Preparation And Evaluation Of Herba...
Deepali Suryavanshi, Ajit.A.Naik, Anjum.G.Bairagdar, Aditi.R.Pati...
Fast Dissolving Tablets: An Overview...
Pommala Nagaveni, A. Sreevalli, G. Syam Sundar, ...
Primary Dysmenorrhea An Updated Review...
Neha Rani, Madhvi Ghadge, Aashutosh Sinwal, Ishu, Puneet Singh Chaudhary, Ratana Ram, Vaibhav Sinwal...
Formulation Evaluation & Development Of Brain Boosting Herbal Chocolate...
Abhishek S. Amrutkar, Anurag C. Kumavat, Avez V. Shaikh, Ashok L. Bhise, Dr. Swapnil D. Deo, Dr. Gaj...
Related Articles
Efficacy of Siravedha and Eranda Taila orally in Vatakantak with special referen...
Dr. Mataprasad Sharma, Dr. Aruna Sonekar, Dr. Rajendra Sonekar, ...
Review on lipid based carrier as a drug delivery system...
Pranali Subhash jadhav, Pranali Hatwar, Gajanan Sanap, ...
Spectrophotometric Methods For Quantitative Estimation Of Tramadol Hydrochloride...
Akash S Ingale, Vishwas S More, Suraj S Patil, Rahulsing U Khairnar , Tushar M Toke , Devendra D Tal...
Review Article On Crisium Arvense...
Shivani, Dev Prakash, Bhavneshwari Devi, ...
Henna Dyeing On Cotton Fabric With Different Natural Mordants And Henna Tattoo W...
Vibha S. Bhagat, Afsana Mondal, Mahedaraksha Junaid Ahmed, Juliet Miranda, ...
More related articles
Henna Dyeing On Cotton Fabric With Different Natural Mordants And Henna Tattoo W...
Vibha S. Bhagat, Afsana Mondal, Mahedaraksha Junaid Ahmed, Juliet Miranda, ...
Alzheimer's Disease: A Review...
Poonam Manikrao Dapke , Ms.Sonali kalam , Dr. Gajanan Sanap, ...
Pharmaceutical Preparation And Evaluation Of Herbal Cold Cream ...
Deepali Suryavanshi, Ajit.A.Naik, Anjum.G.Bairagdar, Aditi.R.Patil, Snehal Bongarde , ...
Henna Dyeing On Cotton Fabric With Different Natural Mordants And Henna Tattoo W...
Vibha S. Bhagat, Afsana Mondal, Mahedaraksha Junaid Ahmed, Juliet Miranda, ...
Alzheimer's Disease: A Review...
Poonam Manikrao Dapke , Ms.Sonali kalam , Dr. Gajanan Sanap, ...
Pharmaceutical Preparation And Evaluation Of Herbal Cold Cream ...
Deepali Suryavanshi, Ajit.A.Naik, Anjum.G.Bairagdar, Aditi.R.Patil, Snehal Bongarde , ...